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Minerals 2017, 7(5), 79; doi:10.3390/min7050079

Characterization of Germanium Speciation in Sphalerite (ZnS) from Central and Eastern Tennessee, USA, by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

1
Laboratoire GeoRessources, Université de Lorraine-CNRS-CREGU, Boulevard des Aiguillettes, BP 239, F-54506 Vandœuvre-lès-Nancy, France
2
BRGM, DGR/MIN, 3, Av. Claude Guillemin, BP 6009, 45100 Orléans, France
3
Institut NEEL, CNRS, Université Grenoble Alpes, F-38042 Grenoble, France
4
FAME Beamline at ESRF, 38000 Grenoble, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Nigel J. Cook
Received: 1 February 2017 / Revised: 10 May 2017 / Accepted: 11 May 2017 / Published: 16 May 2017
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Abstract

X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy was used on zoned sphalerites (ZnS) from two world-class Mississippi Valley Type deposits, the Central and Eastern Tennessee Mining district, USA, in order to investigate germanium oxidation states. Due to the low germanium concentrations of these samples, it was necessary to perform the X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) in fluorescence mode. The overlapping of the Zn Kβ and Ge Kα emission lines meant that a high energy-resolution was required. This was achieved using crystal analysers and allowed a bandwidth of 1.3 eV to be obtained. Experimental spectra were compared to XANES calculations and three configurations of germanium incorporation into sphalerite were identified. The first two, the most prevalent, show germanium (II) and (IV) surrounded by sulphur atoms in tetrahedral coordination, suggesting the replacement of Zn by Ge. In the third configuration, germanium (IV) is surrounded by oxygen atoms. This third configuration is unexpected for a zinc sulphide mineral and it resembles that of argutite (GeO2). View Full-Text
Keywords: XANES spectroscopy; sphalerite; germanium; oxidation state XANES spectroscopy; sphalerite; germanium; oxidation state
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bonnet, J.; Cauzid, J.; Testemale, D.; Kieffer, I.; Proux, O.; Lecomte, A.; Bailly, L. Characterization of Germanium Speciation in Sphalerite (ZnS) from Central and Eastern Tennessee, USA, by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy. Minerals 2017, 7, 79.

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