Next Article in Journal
Strength Characteristics and Failure Mechanism of Cemented Super-Fine Unclassified Tailings Backfill
Previous Article in Journal
Migration Behavior of Lithium during Brine Evaporation and KCl Production Plants in Qarhan Salt Lake
Article Menu
Issue 4 (April) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Minerals 2017, 7(4), 56; doi:10.3390/min7040056

Numerical Investigation of Caved Rock Mass Friction and Fragmentation Change Influence on Gravity Flow Formation in Sublevel Caving

Faculty of Mining and Geology, University of Belgrade, Belgrade 59714, Serbia
Current address: Đušina 7, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Abbas Taheri
Received: 13 February 2017 / Revised: 5 April 2017 / Accepted: 5 April 2017 / Published: 11 April 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [18590 KB, uploaded 11 April 2017]   |  

Abstract

Metal grade dilution is the main production disadvantage of the sublevel caving method, and overcoming this problem has been investigated over the years using different methodologies. Herein, numerical simulation using the discrete element method is used to analyze the influence of friction and fragmentation change in caved rock mass on ore dilution and recovery. The individual and mutual change of each parameter is analyzed. It is considered that at the beginning, the friction angle can be lower or higher than the basic friction angle, and after a certain moment, it will come close to the basic friction value, while fragmentation always decreases. The results showed that both friction and fragmentation, when decreasing, are influencing the higher dilution due to smaller kinematic resistance in the caved mass. If lower friction than the basic one is considered, with the drop of fragmentation, the decrease of dilution occurs. Once the basic friction angle is reached, the fragmentation of the caved mass becomes the dominant influencing factor, and its decrease will continuously increase the dilution until the end of production. However, identifying periods when these changes occur, the possibility for better production planning opens at the design stage, as well as the application of different sublevel designs. View Full-Text
Keywords: sublevel caving; recovery; dilution; discrete element method; secondary fragmentation; friction change sublevel caving; recovery; dilution; discrete element method; secondary fragmentation; friction change
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Lapčević, V.; Torbica, S. Numerical Investigation of Caved Rock Mass Friction and Fragmentation Change Influence on Gravity Flow Formation in Sublevel Caving. Minerals 2017, 7, 56.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Minerals EISSN 2075-163X Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top