Next Article in Journal
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Minerals in 2014
Previous Article in Journal
Review of Biohydrometallurgical Metals Extraction from Polymetallic Mineral Resources
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Minerals 2015, 5(1), 61-79; doi:10.3390/min5010061

Advances in Trace Element “Fingerprinting” of Gem Corundum, Ruby and Sapphire, Mogok Area, Myanmar

School of Science and Health, University of Western Sydney, North Parramatta Campus, Sydney, Penrith PO NSW 2075, Australia
Geoscience, Australian Museum, 6 College Street, Sydney, NSW 2010, Australia
CODES ARC Centre of Excellence in Ore Deposits, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tas 7001, Australia
Institute of Earth Sciences, Academia Sinica, Nankang 115, Taipei, Taiwan
Geology Department, Yangon University, Yangon 11041, Myanmar
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ian Graham
Received: 26 June 2014 / Accepted: 10 December 2014 / Published: 30 December 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews and Recent Advances on Gemology)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1183 KB, uploaded 30 December 2014]   |  


Mogok gem corundum samples from twelve localities were analyzed for trace element signatures (LA-ICP-MS method) and oxygen isotope values (δ18O, by laser fluorination). The study augmented earlier findings on Mogok gem suites that suggested the Mogok tract forms a high vanadium gem corundum area and also identified rare alluvial ruby and sapphire grains characterised by unusually high silicon, calcium and gallium, presence of noticeable boron, tin and niobium and very low iron, titanium and magnesium contents. Oxygen isotope values (δ18O) for the ruby and high Si-Ca-Ga corundum (20‰–25‰) and for sapphire (10‰–20‰) indicate typical crustal values, with values >20‰ being typical of carbonate genesis. The high Si-Ca-Ga ruby has high chromium (up to 3.2 wt % Cr) and gallium (up to 0. 08 wt % Ga) compared to most Mogok ruby (<2 wt % Cr; <0.02 wt % Ga). In trace element ratio plots the Si-Ca-Ga-rich corundum falls into separate fields from the typical Mogok metamorphic fields. The high Ga/Mg ratios (46–521) lie well within the magmatic range (>6), and with other features suggest a potential skarn-like, carbonate-related genesis with a high degree of magmatic fluid input The overall trace element results widen the range of different signatures identified within Mogok gem corundum suites and indicate complex genesis. The expanded geochemical platform, related to a variety of metamorphic, metasomatic and magmatic sources, now provides a wider base for geographic typing of Mogok gem corundum suites. It allows more detailed comparisons with suites from other deposits and will assist identification of Mogok gem corundum sources used in jewelry. View Full-Text
Keywords: Mogok; ruby; sapphire; trace elements; LA-ICP-MS analysis; oxygen isotopes; genetic diversity; geographic typing Mogok; ruby; sapphire; trace elements; LA-ICP-MS analysis; oxygen isotopes; genetic diversity; geographic typing

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Sutherland, F.L.; Zaw, K.; Meffre, S.; Yui, T.-F.; Thu, K. Advances in Trace Element “Fingerprinting” of Gem Corundum, Ruby and Sapphire, Mogok Area, Myanmar. Minerals 2015, 5, 61-79.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Minerals EISSN 2075-163X Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top