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Minerals 2013, 3(3), 304-317; doi:10.3390/min3030304
Review

Sustainability of Rare Earths—An Overview of the State of Knowledge

1,2,* , 2
 and 2,3
Received: 7 July 2013; in revised form: 16 August 2013 / Accepted: 3 September 2013 / Published: 10 September 2013
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Abstract: Rare Earths (RE) have been the focus of much attention in recent years as a consequence of a number of converging factors, prominent among which are: centralization of supply (in China), unique applications in high-end technologies particularly in the low-carbon energy industry, and global demand outstripping availability. Despite this focus, RE supply chain sustainability has not been examined in depth or in any systematic manner. This paper provides an initial review of RE sustainability considerations at present, including current initiatives to understand the research and development needs. The analysis highlights a broad range of areas needing consolidation with future research and calls for collaboration between industry and academia to understand the sustainability considerations of these critical elements in more depth.
Keywords: rare earths; sustainability; social; environmental; energy rare earths; sustainability; social; environmental; energy
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

McLellan, B.C.; Corder, G.D.; Ali, S.H. Sustainability of Rare Earths—An Overview of the State of Knowledge. Minerals 2013, 3, 304-317.

AMA Style

McLellan BC, Corder GD, Ali SH. Sustainability of Rare Earths—An Overview of the State of Knowledge. Minerals. 2013; 3(3):304-317.

Chicago/Turabian Style

McLellan, Benjamin C.; Corder, Glen D.; Ali, Saleem H. 2013. "Sustainability of Rare Earths—An Overview of the State of Knowledge." Minerals 3, no. 3: 304-317.


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