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Mineralogy and Trace Element Chemistry of Ferberite/Reinite from Tungsten Deposits in Central Rwanda
Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR), Stilleweg 2, Hannover D-30655, Germany
Department of Geology and Mineralogy, Royal Museum for Central Africa (RMCA), Leuvensesteenweg 13, Tervuren B-3080, Belgium
Geodynamics and Geofluids Research Group, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200E, Leuven B-3001, Belgium
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 January 2013; in revised form: 7 March 2013 / Accepted: 7 March 2013 / Published: 2 April 2013
Abstract: Tungsten mineralization in hydrothermal quartz veins from the Nyakabingo,Gifurwe and Bugarama deposits in central Rwanda occurs as the iron-rich endmember ofthe wolframite solid solution series (ferberite) and in the particular form of reinite, whichrepresents a pseudomorph of ferberite after scheelite. Primary ferberite, reinite and latesecondary ferberite are characterized by their trace element chemistry and rare earthelement patterns. The replacement of scheelite by ferberite is also documented in the traceelement composition. Primary ferberite shows high Mg, Zn, Sc, V, Nb, In and Snconcentrations, but very low Ca, Pb, Sr and Ba contents. Reinite and late secondaryferberite display an uncommon trace element composition containing high concentrationsof Ca, Pb, Sr, Ba, As and Ga, but very low levels in Sn, Zr, Hf, In, Ti, Sc, Nb, Ta, Mg andZn. Late secondary ferberite replacing primary ferberite is characterized by additionalenrichments in Bi, Pb, As and Sb. The rare earth element patterns of reinite and secondaryferberite are also similar to hydrothermal scheelite. The formation of the tungsten depositsin central Rwanda is interpreted to be epigenetic in origin, and the hydrothermalmineralizing fluids are related to the intrusion of the G4-granites.
Keywords: tungsten deposits; wolframite; ferberite; reinite; mineralogy; trace element chemistry; rare earth elements; Nyakabingo; Gifurwe; Bugarama; Rwanda
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Goldmann, S.; Melcher, F.; Gäbler, H.-E.; Dewaele, S.; Clercq, F.D.; Muchez, P. Mineralogy and Trace Element Chemistry of Ferberite/Reinite from Tungsten Deposits in Central Rwanda. Minerals 2013, 3, 121-144.
Goldmann S, Melcher F, Gäbler H-E, Dewaele S, Clercq FD, Muchez P. Mineralogy and Trace Element Chemistry of Ferberite/Reinite from Tungsten Deposits in Central Rwanda. Minerals. 2013; 3(2):121-144.
Goldmann, Simon; Melcher, Frank; Gäbler, Hans-Eike; Dewaele, Stijn; Clercq, Friso D.; Muchez, Philippe. 2013. "Mineralogy and Trace Element Chemistry of Ferberite/Reinite from Tungsten Deposits in Central Rwanda." Minerals 3, no. 2: 121-144.