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Symmetry 2017, 9(11), 269; doi:10.3390/sym9110269

Fast and Efficient Data Forwarding Scheme for Tracking Mobile Targets in Sensor Networks

1
School of Information Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083, China
2
School of Software, Central South University, Changsha 410075, China
3
Department of Computer Science, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA
4
Department of Computer Science and Technology, Huaqiao University, Quanzhou 362000 China
5
School of Information Technology in Education, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 October 2017 / Revised: 5 November 2017 / Accepted: 6 November 2017 / Published: 9 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Future Internet and Industrial Internet of Things)

Abstract

Transferring emergent target tracking data to sinks is a major challenge in the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT), because inefficient data transmission can cause significant personnel and property loss. For tracking a constantly moving mobile target, sensing data should be delivered to sinks continuously and quickly. Although there is some related research, the end to end tracking delay is still unsatisfying. In this paper, we propose a Fast and Efficient Data Forwarding (FEDF) scheme for tracking mobile targets in sensor networks to reduce tracking delay and maintain a long lifetime. Innovations of the FEDF scheme that differ from traditional scheme are as follows: firstly, we propose a scheme to transmit sensing data through a Quickly Reacted Routing (QRR) path which can reduce delay efficiently. Duty cycles of most nodes on a QRR path are set to 1, so that sleep delay of most nodes turn 0. In this way, end to end delay can be reduced significantly. Secondly, we propose a perfect method to build QRR path and optimize it, which can make QRR path work more efficiently. Target sensing data routing scheme in this paper belongs to a kind of trail-based routing scheme, so as the target moves, the routing path becomes increasingly long, reducing the working efficiency. We propose a QRR path optimization algorithm, in which the ratio of the routing path length to the optimal path is maintained at a smaller constant in the worst case. Thirdly, it has a long lifetime. In FEDF scheme duty cycles of nodes near sink in a QRR path are the same as that in traditional scheme, but duty cycles of nodes in an energy-rich area are 1. Therefore, not only is the rest energy of network fully made use of, but also the network lifetime stays relatively long. Finally, comprehensive performance analysis shows that the FEDF scheme can realize an optimal end to end delay and energy utilization at the same time, reduce end to end delay by 87.4%, improve network energy utilization by 2.65%, and ensure that network lifetime is not less than previous research. View Full-Text
Keywords: Industrial Internet of Things; tracking mobile target; quickly reacted routing; delay; lifetime Industrial Internet of Things; tracking mobile target; quickly reacted routing; delay; lifetime
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhou, M.; Zhao, M.; Liu, A.; Ma, M.; Wang, T.; Huang, C. Fast and Efficient Data Forwarding Scheme for Tracking Mobile Targets in Sensor Networks. Symmetry 2017, 9, 269.

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