Next Article in Journal
Some Elementary Aspects of 4-Dimensional Geometry
Next Article in Special Issue
Analyzing Fluctuating Asymmetry with Geometric Morphometrics: Concepts, Methods, and Applications
Previous Article in Journal
Provable Fair Document Exchange Protocol with Transaction Privacy for E-Commerce
Previous Article in Special Issue
Variation in Fractal Symmetry of Annual Growth in Aspen as an Indicator of Developmental Stability in Trees
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Symmetry 2015, 7(2), 488-514; doi:10.3390/sym7020488

Fluctuating and Directional Asymmetry of the Blue Mussel (Mytilus edulis): Improving Methods of Morphological Analysis to Explore Species Performance at the Northern Border of Its Range

1
Department of Hydrobiology and Ichthyology, St. Petersburg State University, 16 Linia V.O. 29, St. Petersburg 199178, Russia
2
Monitor Taskforce, Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, Korringaweg 7, Yerseke 4401 NT, the Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: John H. Graham
Received: 30 January 2015 / Revised: 4 April 2015 / Accepted: 20 April 2015 / Published: 29 April 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluctuating Asymmetry)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [823 KB, uploaded 29 April 2015]   |  

Abstract

In this work we examined morphological variation at different levels to study performance and population structuring of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis. Our objectives were: (i) to develop an integrated technique for analyzing morphological variation in blue mussels and, based on this technique; (ii) to perform a morphometric description of mussels from the northern part of their range; and (iii) to verify the hypothesis that populations at the outer range of their distribution have reduced performance due to harsh climatic conditions. Means, directional asymmetry (i.e., systematic differences between left and right structures), fluctuating asymmetry (random deviations from perfect symmetry, a measure of developmental instability), factorial variation (difference between total variance and variance of fluctuating asymmetry, an indirect index of genotypic variation), and measurement error were examined for 14 bilateral characters of muscle scars on mussel shells. Also, we analyzed one non-bilateral character. For the first time directional asymmetry—approaching 13% of the right:left ratio—was described in blue mussels. Measurement error, often ignored in morphometric studies, contributed 26% of total variance. Accurately addressing these methodical challenges is key to further and improved ecological interpretations. Morphological differences were found between (i) samples from estuarine areas in the White and Pechora Seas and (ii) samples from Barents Sea areas with oceanic salinity. Samples from the first group exhibited lower fluctuating asymmetry, indicating higher developmental stability likely due to better feeding conditions and lower factorial variation, which may result from lower genotypic variation. Absence of correlation between fluctuating asymmetry and temperature suggests that low temperatures in the northern border of their range do not degrade the performance of adult blue mussels in this region. View Full-Text
Keywords: Barents Sea; developmental instability; directional asymmetry; distribution range; fluctuating asymmetry; measurement error; Mytilus edulis; salinity; temperature; White Sea Barents Sea; developmental instability; directional asymmetry; distribution range; fluctuating asymmetry; measurement error; Mytilus edulis; salinity; temperature; White Sea
Figures

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Lajus, D.; Katolikova, M.; Strelkov, P.; Hummel, H. Fluctuating and Directional Asymmetry of the Blue Mussel (Mytilus edulis): Improving Methods of Morphological Analysis to Explore Species Performance at the Northern Border of Its Range. Symmetry 2015, 7, 488-514.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Symmetry EISSN 2073-8994 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top