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Symmetry 2014, 6(1), 148-163; doi:10.3390/sym6010148
Review

Symmetry Aspects of Dislocation-Effected Crystal Properties: Material Strength Levels and X-ray Topographic Imaging

Received: 21 January 2014; in revised form: 24 February 2014 / Accepted: 12 March 2014 / Published: 20 March 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crystal Symmetry and Structure)
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Abstract: Several materials science type research topics are described in which advantageous use of crystal symmetry considerations has been helpful in ferreting the essential elements of dislocation behavior in determining material properties or for characterizing crystal/polycrystalline structural relationships; for example: (1) the mechanical strengthening produced by a symmetrical bicrystal grain boundary; (2) cleavage crack formation at the intersection within a crystal of symmetrical dislocation pile-ups; (3) symmetry aspects of anisotropic crystal indentation hardness measurements; (4) X-ray diffraction topography imaging of dislocation strains and subgrain boundary misorientations; and (5) point and space group aspects of twinning. Several applications are described in relation to the strengthening of grain boundaries in nanopolycrystals and of multiply-oriented crystal grains in polysilicon photovoltaic solar cell materials. A number of crystallographic aspects of the different topics are illustrated with a stereographic method of presentation.
Keywords: plastic flow stress; crystal slip systems; dislocation pile-ups; grain boundaries; cross-slip; cleavage cracks; indentation hardness; twinning; polycrystals; X-ray diffraction topography; stereographic projections plastic flow stress; crystal slip systems; dislocation pile-ups; grain boundaries; cross-slip; cleavage cracks; indentation hardness; twinning; polycrystals; X-ray diffraction topography; stereographic projections
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Armstrong, R.W. Symmetry Aspects of Dislocation-Effected Crystal Properties: Material Strength Levels and X-ray Topographic Imaging. Symmetry 2014, 6, 148-163.

AMA Style

Armstrong RW. Symmetry Aspects of Dislocation-Effected Crystal Properties: Material Strength Levels and X-ray Topographic Imaging. Symmetry. 2014; 6(1):148-163.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Armstrong, Ronald W. 2014. "Symmetry Aspects of Dislocation-Effected Crystal Properties: Material Strength Levels and X-ray Topographic Imaging." Symmetry 6, no. 1: 148-163.


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