Next Article in Journal
Asymmetric Firing Rate from Crayfish Left and Right Caudal Photoreceptors Due to Blue and Green Monochromatic Light Pulses
Previous Article in Journal
Smart Doll: Emotion Recognition Using Embedded Deep Learning
Article Menu
Issue 9 (September) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Symmetry 2018, 10(9), 388; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym10090388

Symmetrical Properties of Graph Representations of Genetic Codes: From Genotype to Phenotype

Theoretical Biology Group, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico D.F. 04510, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 August 2018 / Revised: 28 August 2018 / Accepted: 5 September 2018 / Published: 8 September 2018
Full-Text   |   PDF [1109 KB, uploaded 8 September 2018]   |  

Abstract

It has long been claimed that the mitochondrial genetic code possesses more symmetries than the Standard Genetic Code (SGC). To test this claim, the symmetrical structure of the SGC is compared with noncanonical genetic codes. We analyzed the symmetries of the graphs of codons and their respective phenotypic graph representation spanned by the RNY (R purines, Y pyrimidines, and N any of them) code, two RNA Extended codes, the SGC, as well as three different mitochondrial genetic codes from yeast, invertebrates, and vertebrates. The symmetry groups of the SGC and their corresponding phenotypic graphs of amino acids expose the evolvability of the SGC. Indeed, the analyzed mitochondrial genetic codes are more symmetrical than the SGC. View Full-Text
Keywords: standard genetic code; mitochondrial codes; phenotypic graphs; graph theory; group theory; evolution standard genetic code; mitochondrial codes; phenotypic graphs; graph theory; group theory; evolution
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

José, M.V.; Zamudio, G.S. Symmetrical Properties of Graph Representations of Genetic Codes: From Genotype to Phenotype. Symmetry 2018, 10, 388.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Symmetry EISSN 2073-8994 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top