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Symmetry 2018, 10(7), 290; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym10070290

An Effective Authentication Algorithm for Polygonal Models with High Embedding Capacity

1
Department of M-Commerce and Multimedia Applications, Asia University, No. 500, Lioufeng Rd., Wufeng District, Taichung 41354, Taiwan
2
Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, China Medical University, No. 2, Yude Road, North District, Taichung 40447, Taiwan
This paper is an extended version of our paper published in 2018 IEEE International Conference on Applied System Innovation as titled “An Improved Region-based Tampered Detection Algorithm for 3D Polygonal Models”.
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Received: 20 June 2018 / Revised: 13 July 2018 / Accepted: 17 July 2018 / Published: 18 July 2018
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Abstract

Fragile watermarking algorithms for 3D models has attracted extensive research attention in recent years. Although many literatures have proposed lots of solutions on this issue, low embedding capacity and inaccurate located tampered region are still presented. Higher embedding capacity can reduce the probability of false alarms for authentication, while accurate tamper localization can detect all the modified vertices with fewer unaltered ones. This study proposes three strategies to enhance the embedding capacity and the detection accuracy of our previous algorithm. First, the modified message-digit substitution table can increase the embedding capacity by 11.5%. Second, the modified embedding ratio generation method can be integrated to raise the embedding capacity by about 47.74%. Finally, the strategy adopting a reduced number of reference vertices for authentication code generation accompanying the above two ones improves the embedding capacity up to 123.74%. Extensive experiments show that the proposed algorithm can achieve superior performance in terms of embedding capacity and tamper localization accuracy. Further, the model distortion between the original and the marked ones is small. View Full-Text
Keywords: tamper detection; authentication; polygonal models; fragile watermarking tamper detection; authentication; polygonal models; fragile watermarking
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Tsai, Y.-Y.; Tsai, Y.-S.; Chang, C.-C. An Effective Authentication Algorithm for Polygonal Models with High Embedding Capacity. Symmetry 2018, 10, 290.

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