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Symmetry, Volume 10, Issue 6 (June 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) We reared Port Jackson shark eggs at present day temperatures and at plus 3 degrees to mimic future [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Towards Real-Time Facial Landmark Detection in Depth Data Using Auxiliary Information
Symmetry 2018, 10(6), 230; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym10060230
Received: 15 May 2018 / Revised: 7 June 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 17 June 2018
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Abstract
Modern facial motion capture systems employ a two-pronged approach for capturing and rendering facial motion. Visual data (2D) is used for tracking the facial features and predicting facial expression, whereas Depth (3D) data is used to build a series of expressions on 3D
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Modern facial motion capture systems employ a two-pronged approach for capturing and rendering facial motion. Visual data (2D) is used for tracking the facial features and predicting facial expression, whereas Depth (3D) data is used to build a series of expressions on 3D face models. An issue with modern research approaches is the use of a single data stream that provides little indication of the 3D facial structure. We compare and analyse the performance of Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) using visual, Depth and merged data to identify facial features in real-time using a Depth sensor. First, we review the facial landmarking algorithms and its datasets for Depth data. We address the limitation of the current datasets by introducing the Kinect One Expression Dataset (KOED). Then, we propose the use of CNNs for the single data stream and merged data streams for facial landmark detection. We contribute to existing work by performing a full evaluation on which streams are the most effective for the field of facial landmarking. Furthermore, we improve upon the existing work by extending neural networks to predict into 3D landmarks in real-time with additional observations on the impact of using 2D landmarks as auxiliary information. We evaluate the performance by using Mean Square Error (MSE) and Mean Average Error (MAE). We observe that the single data stream predicts accurate facial landmarks on Depth data when auxiliary information is used to train the network. The codes and dataset used in this paper will be made available. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deep Learning for Facial Informatics)
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Open AccessReview Group-Theoretic Exploitations of Symmetry in Novel Prestressed Structures
Symmetry 2018, 10(6), 229; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym10060229
Received: 10 May 2018 / Revised: 12 June 2018 / Accepted: 15 June 2018 / Published: 15 June 2018
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Abstract
In recent years, group theory has been gradually adopted for computational problems of solid and structural mechanics. This paper reviews the advances made in the application of group theory in areas such as stability, form-finding, natural vibration and bifurcation of novel prestressed structures.
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In recent years, group theory has been gradually adopted for computational problems of solid and structural mechanics. This paper reviews the advances made in the application of group theory in areas such as stability, form-finding, natural vibration and bifurcation of novel prestressed structures. As initial prestress plays an important role in prestressed structures, its contribution to structural stiffness has been considered. General group-theoretic approaches for several problems are presented, where certain stiffness matrices and equilibrium matrices are expressed in symmetry-adapted coordinate system and block-diagonalized neatly. Illustrative examples on structural stability analysis, force-finding analysis, and generalized eigenvalue analysis on cable domes and cable-strut structures are drawn from recent studies by the authors. It shows how group theory, through symmetry spaces for irreducible representations and matrix decompositions, enables remarkable simplifications and reductions in the computational effort to be achieved. More importantly, before any numerical computations are performed, group theory allows valuable and effective insights on the behavior or intrinsic properties of a prestressed structure to be gained. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Harmonic Principles of Elemental Crystals—From Atomic Interaction to Fundamental Symmetry
Symmetry 2018, 10(6), 228; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym10060228
Received: 5 June 2018 / Revised: 8 June 2018 / Accepted: 11 June 2018 / Published: 15 June 2018
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Abstract
The formation of crystals and symmetry on the atomic scale has persistently attracted scientists through the ages. The structure itself and its subtle dependence on boundary conditions is a reflection of three principles: atomic attraction, repulsion, and the limitations in 3D space. This
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The formation of crystals and symmetry on the atomic scale has persistently attracted scientists through the ages. The structure itself and its subtle dependence on boundary conditions is a reflection of three principles: atomic attraction, repulsion, and the limitations in 3D space. This involves a competition between simplicity and high symmetry on the one hand and necessary structural complexity on the other. This work presents a simple atomistic crystal growth model derived for equivalent atoms and a pair potential. It highlights fundamental concepts, most prominently provided by a maximum number of equilibrium distances in the atom’s local vicinity, to obtain high symmetric structural motifs, among them the Platonic Solids. In this respect, the harmonically balanced interaction during the atomistic nucleation process may be regarded as origin of symmetry. The minimization of total energy is generalized for 3D periodic structures constituting these motifs. In dependence on the pair potential’s short- and long-range characteristics the, by symmetry, rigid lattices relax isotropically within the potential well. The first few coordination shells with lattice-specific fixed distances do not necessarily determine which equilibrium symmetry prevails. A phase diagram calculated on the basis of these few assumptions summarizes stable regions of close-packed fcc and hcp, next to bcc symmetry for predominantly soft short-range and hard long-range interaction. This lattice symmetry, which is evident for alkali metals as well as transition metals of the vanadium and chromium group, cannot be obtained from classical Morse or Lennard-Jones type potentials, but needs the range flexibility within the pair potential. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Bi-Level Programming Model for the Railway Express Cargo Service Network Design Problem
Symmetry 2018, 10(6), 227; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym10060227
Received: 9 May 2018 / Revised: 8 June 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 15 June 2018
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Abstract
Service network design is fundamentally crucial for railway express cargo transportation. The main challenge is to strike a balance between two conflicting objectives: low network setup costs and high expected operational incomes. Different configurations of these objectives will have different impacts on the
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Service network design is fundamentally crucial for railway express cargo transportation. The main challenge is to strike a balance between two conflicting objectives: low network setup costs and high expected operational incomes. Different configurations of these objectives will have different impacts on the quality of freight transportation services. In this paper, a bi-level programming model for the railway express cargo service network design problem is proposed. The upper-level model forms the optimal decisions in terms of the service characteristics, and the low-level model selects the service arcs for each commodity. The rail express cargo is strictly subject to the service commitment, the capacity restriction, flow balance constraints, and logical relationship constraints among the decisions variables. Moreover, linearization techniques are used to convert the lower-level model to a linear one so that it can be directly solved by a standard optimization solver. Finally, a real-world case study based on the Beijing–Guangzhou Railway Line is carried out to demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed solution approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry and Engineering Design)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle A Hybrid Neutrosophic Group ANP-TOPSIS Framework for Supplier Selection Problems
Symmetry 2018, 10(6), 226; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym10060226
Received: 9 May 2018 / Revised: 10 June 2018 / Accepted: 12 June 2018 / Published: 15 June 2018
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Abstract
One of the most significant competitive strategies for organizations is sustainable supply chain management (SSCM). The vital part in the administration of a sustainable supply chain is the sustainable supplier selection, which is a multi-criteria decision-making issue, including many conflicting criteria. The valuation
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One of the most significant competitive strategies for organizations is sustainable supply chain management (SSCM). The vital part in the administration of a sustainable supply chain is the sustainable supplier selection, which is a multi-criteria decision-making issue, including many conflicting criteria. The valuation and selection of sustainable suppliers are difficult problems due to vague, inconsistent and imprecise knowledge of decision makers. In the literature on supply chain management for measuring green performance, the requirement for methodological analysis of how sustainable variables affect each other, and how to consider vague, imprecise and inconsistent knowledge, is still unresolved. This research provides an incorporated multi-criteria decision-making procedure for sustainable supplier selection problems (SSSPs). An integrated framework is presented via interval-valued neutrosophic sets to deal with vague, imprecise and inconsistent information that exists usually in real world. The analytic network process (ANP) is employed to calculate weights of selected criteria by considering their interdependencies. For ranking alternatives and avoiding additional comparisons of analytic network processes, the technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) is used. The proposed framework is turned to account for analyzing and selecting the optimal supplier. An actual case study of a dairy company in Egypt is examined within the proposed framework. Comparison with other existing methods is implemented to confirm the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed approach. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Improved Symmetry Measures of Simplified Neutrosophic Sets and Their Decision-Making Method Based on a Sine Entropy Weight Model
Symmetry 2018, 10(6), 225; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym10060225
Received: 31 May 2018 / Revised: 12 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 15 June 2018
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Abstract
This work indicates the insufficiency of existing symmetry measures (SMs) between asymmetry measures of simplified neutrosophic sets (SNSs) and proposes the improved normalized SMs of SNSs, including the improved SMs and weighted SMs in single-valued and interval neutrosophic settings. Then, the sine entropy
[...] Read more.
This work indicates the insufficiency of existing symmetry measures (SMs) between asymmetry measures of simplified neutrosophic sets (SNSs) and proposes the improved normalized SMs of SNSs, including the improved SMs and weighted SMs in single-valued and interval neutrosophic settings. Then, the sine entropy measures of SNSs are presented to establish a sine entropy weight model for solving the criteria weights in decision-making. Based on the improved weighted SMs of SNSs and the sine entropy weight model, a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) method with unknown criteria weights (an improved MCDM method) is established in the SNS setting. In the MCDM process, corresponding to the criteria weights obtained by the sine entropy model, the ranking order of all alternatives and the best one are given by means of the improved weighted SMs between the ideal solution and each alternative. Lastly, the improved MCDM method is applied to an actual decision example in single-valued and interval neutrosophic settings to indicate the feasibility of the improved MCDM method. By comparative analysis with existing MCDM methods, the improved SMs and the sine entropy weight model not only provide a simpler and more effective method for MCDM problems with unknown criteria weights in the SNS setting, but can also overcome the insufficiency of the existing SMs and MCDM method. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Comparative Study of Logistic Models Using an Asymmetric Link: Modelling the Away Victories in Football
Symmetry 2018, 10(6), 224; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym10060224
Received: 10 April 2018 / Revised: 28 May 2018 / Accepted: 11 June 2018 / Published: 15 June 2018
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Abstract
The target of this paper is to study the relevant factors affecting the victories away from home of football teams in order to fit the probability of winning an away match. The paper addressed the following research issues: (a) Is the identification of
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The target of this paper is to study the relevant factors affecting the victories away from home of football teams in order to fit the probability of winning an away match. The paper addressed the following research issues: (a) Is the identification of the significant variables underlying the results plausible? (b) Can information of these factors increase the probability of winning away from home and assist coaches in their decisions? Empirically, it is shown that there are more home victories and draws than away victories in the professional football leagues in Europe and this fact has to be taken into account. Thus, the classical logistic and Bayesian regression models do not seem to be adequate in this case and an asymmetric logistic regression model is therefore considered. This paper analyses 380 games played in the First Division of the Spanish Football League during the 2013–2014 season. Asymmetric logistic regression from a Bayesian point of view is chosen as the best model. This model detects new relevant factors undetected by standard logistic regressions. In view of the paper’s findings, various practical recommendations were made in order to improve decision-making in this field. The Asymmetric logit link is a helpful device that can assist coaches in their game strategies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Novel Selection Model of Surgical Treatments for Early Gastric Cancer Patients Based on Heterogeneous Multicriteria Group Decision-Making
Symmetry 2018, 10(6), 223; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym10060223
Received: 14 May 2018 / Revised: 10 June 2018 / Accepted: 10 June 2018 / Published: 14 June 2018
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Abstract
Gastric cancer results in malignant tumors with high morbidity and mortality, and seriously affects the health and life quality of patients. Early detection and appropriate treatment for early-stage gastric cancer patients are very helpful to reducing the recurrence rate and improving survival rates.
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Gastric cancer results in malignant tumors with high morbidity and mortality, and seriously affects the health and life quality of patients. Early detection and appropriate treatment for early-stage gastric cancer patients are very helpful to reducing the recurrence rate and improving survival rates. Hence, the selection of a suitable surgical treatment is an important part. At present, surgical treatment selection has been researched in numerous studies, but there is no study integrating fuzzy decision-making theory with quantitative analysis, considering the patient’s conditions with other relative conditions, and which can handle multisource heterogeneous information at the same time. Hence, this paper proposes a novel selection model of surgical treatments for early gastric cancer based on heterogeneous multiple-criteria group decision-making (MCGDM), which is helpful to selecting the most appropriate surgery in the case of asymmetric information between doctors and patients. Subjective and objective criteria are comprehensively taken into account in the index system of the selection model for early gastric cancer, which combines fuzzy theory with quantitative data analysis. Moreover, the evaluation information obtained from the patient’s conditions, the surgery, and the hospital’s medical status, etc., including crisp numbers, interval numbers, neutrosophic numbers, and probabilistic linguistic labels, is more complete and real, so the surgical treatment selection is accurate and reliable. Furthermore, the technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) method is employed to solve the prioritization of early gastric cancer surgical treatments. Finally, an empirical study of surgical treatment selection for early gastric cancer surgery is conducted, and the results of sensitivity analysis and comparative analysis suggest that the proposed selection model of surgical treatments for early gastric cancer patients is reliable and effective. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Bayer Image Demosaicking Using Eight-Directional Weights Based on the Gradient of Color Difference
Symmetry 2018, 10(6), 222; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym10060222
Received: 17 May 2018 / Revised: 8 June 2018 / Accepted: 11 June 2018 / Published: 14 June 2018
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Abstract
In this paper, we propose a new demosaicking algorithm which uses eight-directional weights based on the gradient of color difference (EWGCD) for Bayer image demosaicking. To obtain the interpolation of green (G) pixels, the eight-directional G pixel values are first estimated in red
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In this paper, we propose a new demosaicking algorithm which uses eight-directional weights based on the gradient of color difference (EWGCD) for Bayer image demosaicking. To obtain the interpolation of green (G) pixels, the eight-directional G pixel values are first estimated in red (R)/blue (B) pixels. This estimate is used to calculate the color difference in R/B pixels of the Bayer image in diagonal directions. However, in horizontal and vertical directions, the new estimated G pixels are defined to obtain the color difference. The eight-directional weights of estimated G pixels can be obtained by considering the gradient of the color difference and the gradient of the RGB pixels of the Bayer image. Therefore, the eight-directional weighted values and the first estimated G pixel values are combined to obtain the full G image. Compared with six similar algorithms using the same eighteen McMaster images, the results of the experiment demonstrate that the proposed algorithm has a better performance not only in the subjective visual measurement but also in the assessments of peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and structural similarity (SSIM) index measurement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry in Computing Theory and Application)
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Open AccessArticle A Hybrid Fuzzy Analytic Network Process (FANP) and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) Approach for Supplier Evaluation and Selection in the Rice Supply Chain
Symmetry 2018, 10(6), 221; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym10060221
Received: 18 May 2018 / Revised: 12 June 2018 / Accepted: 12 June 2018 / Published: 14 June 2018
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Abstract
In the market economy, competition is typically due to the difficulty in selecting the most suitable supplier, one that is capable to help a business to develop a profit to the highest value threshold and capable to meet sustainable development features. In addition,
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In the market economy, competition is typically due to the difficulty in selecting the most suitable supplier, one that is capable to help a business to develop a profit to the highest value threshold and capable to meet sustainable development features. In addition, this research discusses a wide range of consequences from choosing an effective supplier, including reducing production cost, improving product quality, delivering the product on time, and responding flexibly to customer requirements. Therefore, the activities noted above are able to increase an enterprise’s competitiveness. It can be seen that selecting a supplier is complex in that decision-makers must have an understanding of the qualitative and quantitative features for assessing the symmetrical impact of the criteria to reach the most accurate result. In this research, the multi-criteria group decision-making (MCGDM) approach was proposed to solve supplier selection problems. The authors collected data from 25 potential suppliers, and the four main criteria within contain 15 sub-criteria to define the most effective supplier, which has viewed factors, including financial efficiency guarantee, quality of materials, ability to deliver on time, and the conditioned response to the environment to improve the efficiency of the industry supply chain. Initially, fuzzy analytic network process (ANP) is used to evaluate and rank these criteria, which are able to be utilized to clarify important criteria that directly affect the profitability of the business. Subsequently, data envelopment analysis (DEA) models, including the Charnes Cooper Rhodes model (CCR model), Banker Charnes Cooper model (BCC model), and slacks-based measure model (SBM model), were proposed to rank suppliers. The result of the model has proposed 7/25 suppliers, which have a condition response to the enterprises’ supply requirements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fuzzy Techniques for Decision Making 2018)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Spatiotemporal and Luminance Contrast Properties of Symmetry Perception
Symmetry 2018, 10(6), 220; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym10060220
Received: 11 May 2018 / Revised: 5 June 2018 / Accepted: 11 June 2018 / Published: 14 June 2018
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Abstract
Recent studies have shown that limiting the lifetime of pattern elements improves symmetry detection, potentially by increasing the number of element locations. Here, we investigate how spatial relocation, luminance contrast modulation and lifetime duration of elements affect symmetry perception in dynamic stimuli. Stimuli
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Recent studies have shown that limiting the lifetime of pattern elements improves symmetry detection, potentially by increasing the number of element locations. Here, we investigate how spatial relocation, luminance contrast modulation and lifetime duration of elements affect symmetry perception in dynamic stimuli. Stimuli were dynamic dot-patterns containing varying amounts of symmetry about a vertical axis. Symmetrical matched-pairs were: (i) relocated to multiple successive, but random locations (i.e., multiple locations condition); (ii) relocated between the same two locations (i.e., two locations condition); (iii) not, relocated, but their luminance contrast was modulated at different temporal frequencies (i.e., one location condition), and (iv) not relocated, but a single pattern was presented at full contrast (i.e., static condition). In the dynamic conditions, we varied the elements’ lifetime duration and temporal frequency of contrast modulation. We measured symmetry detection thresholds using a two-interval forced choice procedure. Our results show improved performance for the multiple locations condition compared to two-location and static conditions, suggesting a cumulative process whereby weak symmetry information is integrated by spatiotemporal filters to increase overall symmetry signal strength. Performance also improved for the static, contrast modulated patterns, but this was explained by a reduction in perceived density. This suggests that different mechanisms mediate symmetry detection in dynamic stimuli and static contrast modulated patterns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry-Related Activity in Mid-Level Vision)
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Open AccessArticle Symmetric Identities for Fubini Polynomials
Symmetry 2018, 10(6), 219; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym10060219
Received: 20 April 2018 / Revised: 7 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 14 June 2018
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Abstract
We represent the generating function of w-torsion Fubini polynomials by means of a fermionic p-adic integral on Zp. Then we investigate a quotient of such p-adic integrals on Zp, representing generating functions of three w-torsion
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We represent the generating function of w-torsion Fubini polynomials by means of a fermionic p-adic integral on Zp. Then we investigate a quotient of such p-adic integrals on Zp, representing generating functions of three w-torsion Fubini polynomials and derive some new symmetric identities for the w-torsion Fubini and two variable w-torsion Fubini polynomials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Symmetric Polynomials with their Applications)
Open AccessArticle Gauss Map and Its Applications on Ruled Submanifolds in Minkowski Space
Symmetry 2018, 10(6), 218; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym10060218
Received: 12 May 2018 / Revised: 7 June 2018 / Accepted: 11 June 2018 / Published: 13 June 2018
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Abstract
We study ruled submanifolds in Minkowski space in regard to the Gauss map satisfying some partial differential equation. As a generalization of usual cylinders, cones and null scrolls in a three-dimensional Minkowski space, a cylinder over a space curve, a product manifold of
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We study ruled submanifolds in Minkowski space in regard to the Gauss map satisfying some partial differential equation. As a generalization of usual cylinders, cones and null scrolls in a three-dimensional Minkowski space, a cylinder over a space curve, a product manifold of a right cone and a k-plane, a product manifold of a hyperbolic cone and a k-plane which look like kinds of cylinders over cones in 3-space, and the generalized B-scroll kind in Minkowski space are characterized with the partial differential equation regarding the Gauss map, where k is a positive integer. Full article
Open AccessArticle Decision-Making via Neutrosophic Support Soft Topological Spaces
Symmetry 2018, 10(6), 217; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym10060217
Received: 29 April 2018 / Revised: 23 May 2018 / Accepted: 7 June 2018 / Published: 13 June 2018
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Abstract
The concept of interval neutrosophic sets has been studied and the introduction of a new kind of set in topological spaces called the interval valued neutrosophic support soft set has been suggested. We study some of its basic properties. The main purpose of
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The concept of interval neutrosophic sets has been studied and the introduction of a new kind of set in topological spaces called the interval valued neutrosophic support soft set has been suggested. We study some of its basic properties. The main purpose of this paper is to give the optimum solution to decision-making in real life problems the using interval valued neutrosophic support soft set. Full article
Open AccessArticle Fuzzy Association Rule Based Froth Surface Behavior Control in Zinc Froth Flotation
Symmetry 2018, 10(6), 216; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym10060216
Received: 30 April 2018 / Revised: 31 May 2018 / Accepted: 7 June 2018 / Published: 13 June 2018
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Abstract
Froth flotation is a vital mineral concentration process. Froth surface behavior is the knowledge about flotation working condition. However, in computer vision aided froth surface behavior control, there are still two challenges that need to be tackled seriously. Against the difficulty in the
[...] Read more.
Froth flotation is a vital mineral concentration process. Froth surface behavior is the knowledge about flotation working condition. However, in computer vision aided froth surface behavior control, there are still two challenges that need to be tackled seriously. Against the difficulty in the froth surface behavior representation, this paper proposes to combine the bubble size distribution (BSD) and froth velocity distribution. As far as we know, this is the first time that the froth velocity distribution is presented. Against the difficulty in the adaptive generation of the optimal froth surface behavior feature (optimal setpoint), this paper introduces the fuzzy apriori to mine the association rule between the current working condition and the optimal setpoint. Then, a fuzzy inference module is constructed to generate optimal setpoint for current working condition adaptively. Many validation experiments and comparison experiments demonstrate the superiority and robustness of the proposed methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Machine Learning Approaches for Intelligent Big Data)
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