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Land 2016, 5(3), 28; doi:10.3390/land5030028

Urban Agriculture Oriented towards Self-Supply, Social and Commercial Purpose: A Typology

1
Department of Agricultural and Food Marketing, University of Kassel, Steinstrasse 19, 37213 Witzenhausen, Germany
2
Institute of Socio-Economics, Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF) e.V., Eberswalder Str. 84, 15374 Müncheberg, Germany
3
agrathaer GmbH, Eberswalder Str. 84, 15374 Müncheberg, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ian Baird
Received: 4 May 2016 / Revised: 24 July 2016 / Accepted: 11 August 2016 / Published: 17 August 2016
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Abstract

Urban agriculture, a dynamic multifunctional phenomenon, affects the spatial diversification of urban land use, its valorization and its governance. Literature acknowledges its contribution to the development of sustainable cities. The dimension and extent of this contribution depends significantly on the particular form and function of urban agriculture. However, the complexity of interests and dimensions is insufficiently covered by theory. This paper proposes a typology for urban agriculture, supporting both theory building and practical decision processes. We reviewed and mapped the diversity of the types of agriculture found along three beneficial dimensions (self-supply, socio-cultural, commercial) for product distribution scale and actors. We distinguish between ideal types, subtypes and mixed types. Our intention is to include a dynamic perspective in the typology of urban agricultural land use because transition processes between types are observable due to the existence of complex motivations and influences. In a pilot study of 52 urban agriculture initiatives in Germany, we tested the validity of the typology and discussed it with stakeholders, proving novelty and relevance for profiling discussions. View Full-Text
Keywords: urban agriculture theory; land use in urban areas; business models; decision making; social innovation; governance urban agriculture theory; land use in urban areas; business models; decision making; social innovation; governance
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Krikser, T.; Piorr, A.; Berges, R.; Opitz, I. Urban Agriculture Oriented towards Self-Supply, Social and Commercial Purpose: A Typology. Land 2016, 5, 28.

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