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Urban Landscape Perspectives
Land 2014, 3(1), 351-361; doi:10.3390/land3010351
Review

Landscape, Legal, and Biodiversity Threats that Windows Pose to Birds: A Review of an Important Conservation Issue

Acopian Center for Ornithology, Department of Biology, Muhlenberg College, 2400 Chew Street, Allentown, PA 18104, USA
Received: 31 December 2013 / Revised: 12 March 2014 / Accepted: 13 March 2014 / Published: 24 March 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landscape Perspectives on Environmental Conservation)
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Abstract

Windows in human residential and commercial structures in urban, suburban, and rural landscapes contribute to the deaths of billions of birds worldwide. International treaties, federal, provincial, state, and municipal laws exist to reduce human-associated avian mortality, but are most often not enforced for bird kills resulting from window strikes. As an additive, compared to a compensatory mortality factor, window collisions pose threats to the sustainability and overall population health of common as well as species of special concern. Several solutions to address the window hazard for birds exist, but the most innovative and promising need encouragement and support to market, manufacture, and implement.
Keywords: bird-window collisions; collision prevention; building and landscape architecture; conservation bird-window collisions; collision prevention; building and landscape architecture; conservation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Klem Jr., D. Landscape, Legal, and Biodiversity Threats that Windows Pose to Birds: A Review of an Important Conservation Issue. Land 2014, 3, 351-361.

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