Trade-Offs and Synergies in Ecosystem Service within the Three-Rivers Headwater Region, China
AbstractThe Three-Rivers Headwaters region (TRHR) is an ecological shelter located in the northeast of the Tibetan Plateau, China, that provides environmental protection and regional sustainable development. This region also provides ecosystem services including water supply and soil conservation and exerts major impacts on both its surroundings, as well as the whole of China. A number of ecological restoration projects have been initiated within the TRHR since 2000, including the creation of a natural reserve. Analyses of trends in land use/land cover (LULC), net primary productivity (NPP), water yield and soil conservation within the TRHR are presented based on regional climate and land use datasets and utilizing the Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST) model in tandem with the double mass curve (DMC) approach. The results of this study reveal a series of correlations between ecosystem services and lead to four distinct conclusions. First, the amount of variation between 2000 and 2012 in each LULC type within the TRHR was small. In particular, grassland substitution occurred in high-altitude areas and increased in central areas. Second, NPP, water yield, soil conservation amount and the volume of exported phosphorus (P) decreased along an east-west gradient with values of 64.44%, 38.81%, 7.37% and −49.98% recorded, respectively, between 2000 and 2012. The ecosystem services of the Yellow River basin to the east of the TRHR generally improved over the study period, while those of the Yangtze River and Lancang River basins where enhanced to a lesser extent, and obvious degradation was observed in some local areas. Third, the ecosystem services provided by forested land were highest, followed by grassland and cultivated land, respectively. Fourth, synergistic relationships were observed within the TRHR between NPP, water yield and soil conservation amount, indicating that increasing NPP simultaneously increased the values for these related factors. Synergistic relationships were also recorded between water yield and the amount of exported P, suggesting that increases in the former cause a reduction in water purity. View Full-Text
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Han, Z.; Song, W.; Deng, X.; Xu, X. Trade-Offs and Synergies in Ecosystem Service within the Three-Rivers Headwater Region, China. Water 2017, 9, 588.
Han Z, Song W, Deng X, Xu X. Trade-Offs and Synergies in Ecosystem Service within the Three-Rivers Headwater Region, China. Water. 2017; 9(8):588.Chicago/Turabian Style
Han, Ze; Song, Wei; Deng, Xiangzheng; Xu, Xinliang. 2017. "Trade-Offs and Synergies in Ecosystem Service within the Three-Rivers Headwater Region, China." Water 9, no. 8: 588.
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