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Water 2017, 9(8), 577; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9080577

Effectiveness of ABC Waters Design Features for Runoff Quantity Control in Urban Singapore

1
PUB Singapore’s national water agency, Singapore 228231, Singapore
2
Water Science and Engineering Department, IHE Delft Institute for Water Education, 2611 AX Delft, The Netherlands
3
Tropical Marine Science Institute, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119227, Singapore
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 June 2017 / Revised: 7 July 2017 / Accepted: 31 July 2017 / Published: 3 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sponge Cities: Emerging Approaches, Challenges and Opportunities)

Abstract

Active, Beautiful, Clean Waters (ABC Waters) design features—natural systems consisting of plants and soil that detain and treat rainwater runoff—comprise a major part of Sustainable urban Drainage Systems (SuDS) in Singapore. Although it is generally accepted that ABC Waters design features are able to detain runoff and reduce peak flow, their effectiveness in doing so has not been studied or documented locally. This research aims to determine their effectiveness in reducing peak flow based on a newly constructed pilot precinct named Waterway Ridges. Four types of ABC Waters features have been integrated holistically within the development, and designed innovatively to allow the precinct to achieve an effective C-value of 0.55 for the 10-year design storm; the precinct-wide integration and implemented design with the aim of substantially reducing peak flow are firsts in Singapore. The study is based on results from an uncalibrated 1D hydraulic model developed using the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM). Identification of key design elements and performance enhancement of the features via optimisation were also studied. Results show that the features are effective in reducing peak flow for the 10-year design storm, by 33%, and allowed the precinct to achieve an effective C-value of 0.60. View Full-Text
Keywords: ABC Waters; LID; SuDS; WSUD; water quantity control; runoff control; numerical simulation; sustainable storm water management ABC Waters; LID; SuDS; WSUD; water quantity control; runoff control; numerical simulation; sustainable storm water management
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Yau, W.K.; Radhakrishnan, M.; Liong, S.-Y.; Zevenbergen, C.; Pathirana, A. Effectiveness of ABC Waters Design Features for Runoff Quantity Control in Urban Singapore. Water 2017, 9, 577.

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