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Water 2017, 9(6), 396; doi:10.3390/w9060396

Soil Water and Phreatic Evaporation in Shallow Groundwater during a Freeze–Thaw Period

College of Water Resources and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024, China
The First Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology Team of Shanxi Province, Taiyuan 030024, China
Department of Earth Sciences, University of the Western Cape, Private Bag X17, Bellville, Cape Town 7535, South Africa
Taigu Water Balance Experimental Field, Bureau of Hydrology and Water Resources Survey of Shanxi Province, Taigu 030800, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Timothy R. Green and Arjen Y. Hoekstra
Received: 12 March 2017 / Revised: 8 May 2017 / Accepted: 26 May 2017 / Published: 2 June 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1658 KB, uploaded 2 June 2017]   |  


The exchange between shallow groundwater and soil water is unusually strong during freeze-thaw periods. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of four different groundwater table depths (GTDs) and two soil textures on soil water moisture migration and phreatic evaporation during a freeze-thaw period using lysimeters. The results show that a high-moisture zone (HMZ) formed at a depth of 25–35 cm for sandy loam with a soil moisture content of 52%, while no obvious HMZ formed for fine sand when the GTD was 0.5 m. When the GTD was 2.0 m, a HMZ formed at a depth of 50–70 cm for sandy loam at the highest soil moisture content of 22%, while a HMZ formed at a depth of 60–80 cm for fine sand with a soil moisture content of 10%. The cumulative phreatic evaporation increased by a power function on freezing days during the freezing period. The total phreatic evaporation for sandy loam declined linearly with the increasing of GTD, and with the largest evaporation value of 73.6 mm for fine sand when the GTD was 1.0 m during the freeze-thaw period. The research would be significant for water resource assessment, the conversion of farmland water, and the prevention of saline land. View Full-Text
Keywords: freezing; thawing; soil moisture; shallow groundwater; phreatic evaporation freezing; thawing; soil moisture; shallow groundwater; phreatic evaporation

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Miao, C.; Chen, J.; Zheng, X.; Zhang, Y.; Xu, Y.; Du, Q. Soil Water and Phreatic Evaporation in Shallow Groundwater during a Freeze–Thaw Period. Water 2017, 9, 396.

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