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Water 2017, 9(4), 249; doi:10.3390/w9040249

Effects of Urban Non-Point Source Pollution from Baoding City on Baiyangdian Lake, China

1
Ministry of Education Key Lab of Water and Sand Science, School of Environment, Beijing NormalUniversity, Beijing 100875, China
2
State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
3
Yellow River Engineering Consulting Co. Ltd., Zhengzhou 450003, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Karim Abbaspour, Raghavan Srinivasan, Saeid Ashraf Vaghefi, Monireh Faramarzi and Lei Chen
Received: 29 December 2016 / Revised: 28 March 2017 / Accepted: 30 March 2017 / Published: 1 April 2017
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Abstract

Due to the high density of buildings and low quality of the drainage pipe network in the city, urban non‐point source pollution has become a serious problem encountered worldwide. This study investigated and analyzed the characteristics of non‐point source pollution in Baoding City. A simulation model for non‐point source pollution was developed based on the Stormwater Management Model (SWMM), and, the process of non‐point source pollution was simulated for Baoding City. The data was calibrated using data from two observed rainfall events (25.6 and 25.4 mm, the total rainfall on 31 July 2008 (07312008) was 25.6 mm, the total rainfall amount on 21 August 2008 (08212008) was 25.4 mm) and validated using data from an observed rainfall event (92.6 mm, the total rainfall on 08102008 was 92.6 mm) (Our monitoring data is limited by the lack of long‐term monitoring, but it can meet the requests of model calibration and validation basically). In order to analyze the effects of non‐point source pollution on Baiyangdian Lake, the characteristics and development trends of water pollution were determined using a one‐dimensional water quality model for Baoding City. The results showed that the pollutant loads for Pb, Zn, TN (Total Nitrogen), and TP (Total Phosphorus) accounted for about 30% of the total amount of pollutant load. Finally, applicable control measures for non‐point source pollution especially for Baoding were suggested, including urban rainwater and flood resources utilization and Best Management Practices (BMPs) for urban non‐point source pollution control. View Full-Text
Keywords: Baoding City; SWMM; non-point source (NPS) pollution; Baiyangdian Lake; rainfall-runoff Baoding City; SWMM; non-point source (NPS) pollution; Baiyangdian Lake; rainfall-runoff
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Li, C.; Zheng, X.; Zhao, F.; Wang, X.; Cai, Y.; Zhang, N. Effects of Urban Non-Point Source Pollution from Baoding City on Baiyangdian Lake, China. Water 2017, 9, 249.

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