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Water 2017, 9(3), 166; doi:10.3390/w9030166

Detection of Viable Bacteria during Sludge Ozonation by the Combination of ATP Assay with PMA-Miseq Sequencing

1,2
,
3
,
1
,
3,4
and
2,4,*
1
Beijing Key Laboratory of Water Quality Science and Water Environment Recovery, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124, China
2
Key Laboratory of Drinking Water Science and Technology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China
3
State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China
4
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Yung-Tse Hung and Andreas N. Angelakis
Received: 6 December 2016 / Revised: 6 February 2017 / Accepted: 21 February 2017 / Published: 26 February 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1706 KB, uploaded 1 March 2017]   |  

Abstract

Using sludge obtained from municipal sewage treatment plants, the response of viable bacterial populations during the sludge ozonation process was investigated by a combination of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) assay and propidium monoazide (PMA)-Miseq sequencing. The ATP assay was first optimized for application on sludge samples by adjusting the sludge solid contents and reaction time. PMA-modified polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was also optimized by choosing the suitable final PMA concentration. The quantity and composition of viable bacterial populations during sludge ozonation were further elucidated using the optimized ATP and PMA-modified PCR methods. The results indicated that after the sludge was exposed to ozone (O3) at 135 mg·O3/g total suspended solids (TSS), the viable biomass displayed a substantial decrease, with a reduction rate reaching 70.89%. The composition of viable bacterial communities showed a faster succession, showing that an ozone dosage of 114 mg·O3/g TSS is enough to significantly change the viable bacterial population structure. Floc-forming genera, such as Zoogloea, Ferruginibacter, Thauera and Turneriella, are sensitive to ozonation, while the relative abundances of some functional bacterial genera, including SM1A02, Nitrospira and Candidatus Accumulibacter, remained constant or increased in the viable bacterial population during sludge ozonation, indicating that they are more resistant to ozonation. View Full-Text
Keywords: propidium monoazide; quantitative PCR; bacterial community; adenosine triphosphate; ozonated sludge propidium monoazide; quantitative PCR; bacterial community; adenosine triphosphate; ozonated sludge
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Tian, S.; Tian, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, M.; Zhang, Y. Detection of Viable Bacteria during Sludge Ozonation by the Combination of ATP Assay with PMA-Miseq Sequencing. Water 2017, 9, 166.

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