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Water 2017, 9(2), 98; doi:10.3390/w9020098

Experimental and Numerical Analysis of a Water Emptying Pipeline Using Different Air Valves

Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Tecnológica de Bolívar, Cartagena 131001, Colombia
Departamento de Ingeniería Hidráulica y Medio Ambiente, Universitat Politècnica de València, Valencia 46022, Spain
Department of Civil Engineering, Saghez Branch, Islamic Azad University, Saghez 66819-73477, Iran
Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, CERIS, Instituto Superior Técnico, University of Lisbon, Lisbon 1049-001, Portugal
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 December 2016 / Revised: 25 January 2017 / Accepted: 3 February 2017 / Published: 8 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Systems towards New Future Challenges)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1336 KB, uploaded 16 February 2017]   |  


The emptying procedure is a common operation that engineers have to face in pipelines. This generates subatmospheric pressure caused by the expansion of air pockets, which can produce the collapse of the system depending on the conditions of the installation. To avoid this problem, engineers have to install air valves in pipelines. However, if air valves are not adequately designed, then the risk in pipelines continues. In this research, a mathematical model is developed to simulate an emptying process in pipelines that can be used for planning this type of operation. The one-dimensional proposed model analyzes the water phase propagation by a new rigid model and the air pockets effect using thermodynamic formulations. The proposed model is validated through measurements of the air pocket absolute pressure, the water velocity and the length of the emptying columns in an experimental facility. Results show that the proposed model can accurately predict the hydraulic characteristic variables. View Full-Text
Keywords: air-water; air pocket; air valve; hydraulic model; pipeline; emptying; water supply; water hammer air-water; air pocket; air valve; hydraulic model; pipeline; emptying; water supply; water hammer

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Coronado-Hernández, O.E.; Fuertes-Miquel, V.S.; Besharat, M.; Ramos, H.M. Experimental and Numerical Analysis of a Water Emptying Pipeline Using Different Air Valves. Water 2017, 9, 98.

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