Next Article in Journal
Effects of Different In-Stream Structure Representations in Computational Fluid Dynamics Models—Taking Engineered Log Jams (ELJ) as an Example
Previous Article in Journal
Performance of Denitrifying Bioreactors at Reducing Agricultural Nitrogen Pollution in a Humid Subtropical Coastal Plain Climate
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Water 2017, 9(2), 111; doi:10.3390/w9020111

Hydrological Modeling of Highly Glacierized Basins (Andes, Alps, and Central Asia)

1
Former Graduate Research Assistant, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
2
Spatial Sciences Laboratory, Department of Ecosystems Sciences and Management, Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
3
Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 December 2016 / Revised: 26 January 2017 / Accepted: 3 February 2017 / Published: 10 February 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [5624 KB, uploaded 13 February 2017]   |  

Abstract

The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to simulate five glacierized river basins that are global in coverage and vary in climate. The river basins included the Narayani (Nepal), Vakhsh (Central Asia), Rhone (Switzerland), Mendoza (Central Andes, Argentina), and Central Dry Andes (Chile), with a total area of 85,000 km2. A modified SWAT snow algorithm was applied in order to consider spatial variation of associated snowmelt/accumulation by elevation band across each subbasin. In previous studies, melt rates varied as a function of elevation because of an air temperature gradient while the snow parameters were constant throughout the entire basin. A major improvement of the new snow algorithm is the separation of the glaciers from seasonal snow based on their characteristics. Two SWAT snow algorithms were evaluated in simulation of monthly runoff from the glaciered watersheds: (1) the snow parameters are lumped (constant throughout the entire basin) and (2) the snow parameters are spatially variable based on elevation bands of a subbasin (modified snow algorithm). Applying the distributed SWAT snow algorithm improved the model performance in simulation of monthly runoff with snow-glacial regime, so that mean RSR decreased to 0.49 from 0.55 and NSE increased to 0.75 from 0.69. Improvement of model performance was negligible in simulations of monthly runoff from the basins with a monsoon runoff regime. View Full-Text
Keywords: SWAT; glacier; snow; modeling; watershed SWAT; glacier; snow; modeling; watershed
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Omani, N.; Srinivasan, R.; Karthikeyan, R.; Smith, P.K. Hydrological Modeling of Highly Glacierized Basins (Andes, Alps, and Central Asia). Water 2017, 9, 111.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top