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Water 2017, 9(10), 787; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9100787

Optimization of Multiple Seepage Piping Parameters to Maximize the Critical Hydraulic Gradient in Bimsoils

1
Beijing Key Laboratory of Urban Underground Space Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering, School of Civil & Resource Engineering, University of Science & Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China
2
Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education of China for High-Efficient Mining and Safety of Metal Mines, University of Science & Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China
3
Key Laboratory of Shale Gas and Geoengineering, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 August 2017 / Revised: 30 September 2017 / Accepted: 3 October 2017 / Published: 15 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil Water Conservation: Dynamics and Impact)
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Abstract

Seepage failure in the form of piping can strongly influence the stability of block-in-matrix-soils (bimsoils), as well as weaken and affect the performance of bimsoil structures. The multiple-factor evaluation and optimization play a crucial role in controlling the seepage failure in bimsoil. The aim of this study is to improve the ability to control the piping seepage failure in bimsoil. In this work, the response surface method (RSM) was employed to evaluate and optimize the multiple piping parameters to maximize the critical hydraulic gradient (CHG), in combination with experimental modeling based on a self-developed servo-controlled flow-erosion-stress coupled testing system. All of the studied specimens with rock block percentage (RBP) of 30%, 50%, and 70% were produced as a cylindrical shape (50 mm diameter and 100 mm height) by compaction tests. Four uncertain parameters, such as RBP, soil matrix density, confining pressure, and block morphology were used to fit an optimal response of the CHG. The sensitivity analysis reveals the influential order of the studied factors to CHG. It is found that RBP is the most sensitive factor, the CHG decreases with the increase of RBP, and CHG increases with the increase of confining pressure, soil matrix density, and block angularity. View Full-Text
Keywords: bimsoils; critical hydraulic gradient (CHG); response surface methodology; multi-parameter evaluation; laboratory experiment bimsoils; critical hydraulic gradient (CHG); response surface methodology; multi-parameter evaluation; laboratory experiment
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Wang, Y.; Li, C.; Hu, Y.; Xiao, Y. Optimization of Multiple Seepage Piping Parameters to Maximize the Critical Hydraulic Gradient in Bimsoils. Water 2017, 9, 787.

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