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Water 2017, 9(10), 771; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9100771

Generalized Storage–Yield–Reliability Relationships for Analysing Shopping Centre Rainwater Harvesting Systems

1
School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2050, South Africa
2
Arup Consulting, Johannesburg 2076, South Africa
3
Knight Piesold Consulting Engineers, Johannesburg 2128, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 August 2017 / Revised: 27 September 2017 / Accepted: 30 September 2017 / Published: 10 October 2017
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Abstract

The objective of this study was to develop guidelines for analysing rainwater harvesting (RWH) systems of shopping centres in South Africa. A model consisting of three dimensionless relationships relating rainwater supply and demand to storage capacity, yield and reliability was formulated. Data from daily simulation of potential RWH systems of 19 shopping were used to obtain the relationships. The simulations revealed within-year storage behaviour with considerable variation of annual yield. By applying the Weibull plotting position formula, yield–reliability relationships were derived. The aim to maximize yield and reliability whilst minimizing storage identified Pareto-optimal combinations of the three variables and these combinations were used to develop two dimensionless relationships. An additional relationship based on the dependence of the slope of the yield–reliability plots on yield was formulated to enable analysis of hydrologically non-optimal systems. Verification tests using four RWH systems obtained results that matched those from simulation and the model could therefore be applied for RWH feasibility analysis and preliminary design. This study highlights the need to incorporate inter-annual variability in RWH analysis and shows how reliability can be used to quantify this. This study further demonstrates how reliability can be fully integrated into regression relationships for generalized RWH analysis. View Full-Text
Keywords: rainwater harvesting; yield; reliability; storage; inter-annual variability; generalization; Pareto optimum rainwater harvesting; yield; reliability; storage; inter-annual variability; generalization; Pareto optimum
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Ndiritu, J.; Moodley, Y.; Guliwe, M. Generalized Storage–Yield–Reliability Relationships for Analysing Shopping Centre Rainwater Harvesting Systems. Water 2017, 9, 771.

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