Next Article in Journal
An Integrated Modelling System to Predict Hydrological Processes under Climate and Land-Use/Cover Change Scenarios
Previous Article in Journal
Sunshine Duration Variability in Haihe River Basin, China, during 1966–2015
Article Menu
Issue 10 (October) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Water 2017, 9(10), 766; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9100766

Surrogate Models for Sub-Region Groundwater Management in the Beijing Plain, China

1
College of Water Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
2
Engineering Research Center of Groundwater Pollution Control and Remediation of Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
3
Department of Civil, Environmental, and Construction Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32765, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 August 2017 / Revised: 27 September 2017 / Accepted: 3 October 2017 / Published: 9 October 2017
Full-Text   |   PDF [8012 KB, uploaded 12 October 2017]   |  

Abstract

Overexploitation of groundwater resources has caused groundwater-related problems all over the world. Effective groundwater governance is a favorable guarantee for its protection and sustainable utilization. Accurate prediction of groundwater level (GWL) or depth to groundwater (GWD) plays an important role in groundwater resource management. Due to the limitations and complexity of numerical models, this study aims to develop surrogate models that can dually control the GWL (or GWD) and groundwater quantity (GWQ) in each district of the Beijing Plain, China, using the methods of multiple linear regression (MLR) and back propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN). This study used 180 monthly GWD data records, including the first 168 data records for model development (training) and the remaining 12 data records for model verification. The results indicate that the Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient (NSE) and correlation coefficient (R) for both the MLR and BP-ANN models are high in most districts and that the MLR models are more appropriate in this study. Fifteen scenarios under different conditions of groundwater use and precipitation are designed to demonstrate the applicability of the developed model in groundwater management. The surrogate models are effective tools that can be used by decision-makers for groundwater management. View Full-Text
Keywords: groundwater management; surrogate model; groundwater level; multiple linear regression; BP-ANN groundwater management; surrogate model; groundwater level; multiple linear regression; BP-ANN
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, M.; Hu, L.; Yao, L.; Yin, W. Surrogate Models for Sub-Region Groundwater Management in the Beijing Plain, China. Water 2017, 9, 766.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top