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Water 2017, 9(10), 766; doi:10.3390/w9100766

Surrogate Models for Sub-Region Groundwater Management in the Beijing Plain, China

College of Water Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
Engineering Research Center of Groundwater Pollution Control and Remediation of Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
Department of Civil, Environmental, and Construction Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32765, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 August 2017 / Revised: 27 September 2017 / Accepted: 3 October 2017 / Published: 9 October 2017
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Overexploitation of groundwater resources has caused groundwater-related problems all over the world. Effective groundwater governance is a favorable guarantee for its protection and sustainable utilization. Accurate prediction of groundwater level (GWL) or depth to groundwater (GWD) plays an important role in groundwater resource management. Due to the limitations and complexity of numerical models, this study aims to develop surrogate models that can dually control the GWL (or GWD) and groundwater quantity (GWQ) in each district of the Beijing Plain, China, using the methods of multiple linear regression (MLR) and back propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN). This study used 180 monthly GWD data records, including the first 168 data records for model development (training) and the remaining 12 data records for model verification. The results indicate that the Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient (NSE) and correlation coefficient (R) for both the MLR and BP-ANN models are high in most districts and that the MLR models are more appropriate in this study. Fifteen scenarios under different conditions of groundwater use and precipitation are designed to demonstrate the applicability of the developed model in groundwater management. The surrogate models are effective tools that can be used by decision-makers for groundwater management. View Full-Text
Keywords: groundwater management; surrogate model; groundwater level; multiple linear regression; BP-ANN groundwater management; surrogate model; groundwater level; multiple linear regression; BP-ANN

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Zhang, M.; Hu, L.; Yao, L.; Yin, W. Surrogate Models for Sub-Region Groundwater Management in the Beijing Plain, China. Water 2017, 9, 766.

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