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Water 2016, 8(7), 295; doi:10.3390/w8070295

A Lymnaea stagnalis Embryo Test for Toxicity Bioindication of Acidification and Ammonia Pollution in Water

1
Department of Geoinformation Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing of Environment, Faculty of Mining Surveying and Environmental Engineering, AGH University of Science and Technology, Krakow 30-059, Poland
2
Department of Agricultural Engineering, China Agricultural University, Key Laboratory of Clean Utilization Technology for Renewable Energy, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing 100083, China
3
Department of Ecology and Agricultural Environment Protection, Poznań University of Life Sciences, Poznań 60-649, Poland
4
Department of Ecology, Climatology and Air Protection, Faculty of Environmental Engineering and Land Surveying, University of Agriculture in Krakow, Krakow 30-059, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Maria Filomena Camões
Received: 2 May 2016 / Revised: 15 June 2016 / Accepted: 12 July 2016 / Published: 16 July 2016
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Abstract

The paper presents a study leading to a new acute toxicity test on embryonic and juvenile organisms of the great pond snail (Lymnaea stagnalis Linnaeus). Sulfuric acid, nitric acid, and ammonium hydroxide were used as waterborne toxicants in laboratory experiments. The exposure time was 24 h. Tests were conducted in 5–10 replications for each toxicant. The toxicity of the substances was classified according to different scales and the test’s sensitivity was compared to that of the commonly used bioindicator Daphnia magna Straus. The assessment of toxicity impact was supported by microscopic observations. The probit method was used as a parametric statistical procedure to estimate LC50 and the associated 95% confidence interval. Our study showed that the early developmental stages of Lymnaea stagnalis are very sensitive bioindicators, making it possible to detect even very low levels of the above-mentioned water toxicants. The highest toxicity is shown by ammonium hydroxide with LC50/24h values, respectively, 24.27 for embryos and 24.72 for juvenile forms, and the lowest is shown by nitric acid ions with LC50/24h values, respectively, 105.19 for embryos and 170.47 for juvenile forms. It is highly cost-effective due to simple and efficient breeding and the small size of the organisms in the bioassay population. Compared with Daphnia magna, relatively low concentrations of toxicants caused a lethal effect on embryonic and juvenile organisms of the great pond snail. Owing to their common occurrence and sensitivity, early developmental forms of Lymnaea stagnalis can be a valuable new tool in biomonitoring of the freshwater environment. View Full-Text
Keywords: acute toxicity test; bioassay; bioindicators; water pollution; aquatic molluscs acute toxicity test; bioassay; bioindicators; water pollution; aquatic molluscs
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Mazur, R.; Shubiao, W.; Szoszkiewicz, K.; Bedla, D.; Nowak, A. A Lymnaea stagnalis Embryo Test for Toxicity Bioindication of Acidification and Ammonia Pollution in Water. Water 2016, 8, 295.

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