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Water 2016, 8(7), 294; doi:10.3390/w8070294

Stormwater Management: Calculation of Traffic Area Runoff Loads and Traffic Related Emissions

Chair of Urban Water Systems Engineering, Technical University of Munich, Am Coulombwall 3, 85748 Garching, Germany
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Marco Franchini
Received: 18 May 2016 / Revised: 6 July 2016 / Accepted: 12 July 2016 / Published: 15 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Drainage and Urban Stormwater Management)
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Abstract

Metals such as antimony, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc can be highly relevant pollutants in stormwater runoff from traffic areas because of their occurrence, toxicity, and non-degradability. Long-term measurements of their concentrations, the corresponding water volumes, the catchment areas, and the traffic volumes can be used to calculate specific emission loads and annual runoff loads that are necessary for mass balances. In the literature, the annual runoff loads are often specified by a distinct catchment area (e.g., g/ha). These loads were summarized and discussed in this paper for all seven metals and three types of traffic areas (highways, parking lots, and roads; 45 sites). For example, the calculated median annual runoff loads of all sites are 355 g/ha for copper, 110 g/ha for lead (only data of the 21st century), and 1960 g/ha for zinc. In addition, historical trends, annual variations, and site-specific factors were evaluated for the runoff loads. For Germany, mass balances of traffic related emissions and annual heavy metal runoff loads from highways and total traffic areas were calculated. The influences on the mass fluxes of the heavy metal emissions and the runoff pollution were discussed. However, a statistical analysis of the annual traffic related metal fluxes, in particular for different traffic area categories and land uses, is currently not possible because of a lack of monitoring data. View Full-Text
Keywords: de-icing salt; Germany; heavy metal source; highway; mass balance; parking lot; pollution; road; site-specific factors; urban de-icing salt; Germany; heavy metal source; highway; mass balance; parking lot; pollution; road; site-specific factors; urban
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Huber, M.; Helmreich, B. Stormwater Management: Calculation of Traffic Area Runoff Loads and Traffic Related Emissions. Water 2016, 8, 294.

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