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Water 2016, 8(2), 50; doi:10.3390/w8020050

Seismic-Reliability-Based Optimal Layout of a Water Distribution Network

1
Research Center for Disaster Prevention Science and Technology, Korea University, Seoul 136-713, Korea
2
Department of Civil Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-701, Korea
3
School of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering, Korea University, Anam-ro 145, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-713, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Helena Ramos
Received: 18 November 2015 / Revised: 14 January 2016 / Accepted: 25 January 2016 / Published: 3 February 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Systems towards New Future Challenges)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2684 KB, uploaded 3 February 2016]   |  

Abstract

We proposed an economic, cost-constrained optimal design of a water distribution system (WDS) that maximizes seismic reliability while satisfying pressure constraints. The model quantifies the seismic reliability of a WDS through a series of procedures: stochastic earthquake generation, seismic intensity attenuation, determination of the pipe failure status (normal, leakage, and breakage), pipe failure modeling in hydraulic simulation, and negative pressure treatment. The network’s seismic reliability is defined as the ratio of the available quantity of water to the required water demand under stochastic earthquakes. The proposed model allows no pipe option in decisions, making it possible to identify seismic-reliability-based optimal layout for a WDS. The model takes into account the physical impact of earthquake events on the WDS, which ultimately affects the network’s boundary conditions (e.g., failure level of pipes). A well-known benchmark network, the Anytown network, is used to demonstrate the proposed model. The network’s optimal topology and pipe layouts are determined from a series of optimizations. The results show that installing large redundant pipes degrades the system’s seismic reliability because the pipes will cause a large rupture opening under failure. Our model is a useful tool to find the optimal pipe layout that maximizes system reliability under earthquakes. View Full-Text
Keywords: seismic reliability; water distribution system; optimal layout; Anytown network seismic reliability; water distribution system; optimal layout; Anytown network
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Yoo, D.G.; Jung, D.; Kang, D.; Kim, J.H. Seismic-Reliability-Based Optimal Layout of a Water Distribution Network. Water 2016, 8, 50.

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