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Water 2016, 8(11), 530; doi:10.3390/w8110530

The Impact of Water Quality on the Use of Solar Water Heaters in Remote Islands of Taiwan

Energy Research Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Ling Tim Wong and Kwok Wai Mui
Received: 12 October 2016 / Revised: 9 November 2016 / Accepted: 10 November 2016 / Published: 15 November 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Supply and Drainage for Sustainable Built Environment)
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Abstract

The use of solar water heaters (SWHs) in Taiwan’s remote islands has been subjected to scaling and, in particular, corrosion problems due to sources of water. In this study, four different water quality indices including the Langelier Saturation Index (LSI), the Ryznar Stability Index (RSI), the Puckorius Scaling Index (PSI), and the Larson-Skold Corrosive Index (LSCI) were employed to assess the scaling and corrosion tendencies in SWHs caused by tap water and ground water in the Penghu, Kinmen, and Lienchiang counties, each of which is constituted of several remote islands. In general, the LSI, the RSI, and the PSI results show a slight scaling tendency in Penghu, but a corrosion tendency in Kinmen and Lienchiang. Nevertheless, all LSCI results show a serious steel corrosion tendency in these three counties. In addition, the chloride ion (Cl) concentrations are higher than 45 mg/L in either tap water (except for the Lieyu township in Kinmen) or ground water. This fact resulted in serious corrosion problems, as found in the currently installed SWHs, which were mainly made from 304 stainless steel. The metals with higher corrosion resistance to chloride ions are required in the manufacture of SWHs to be installed on these three remote-island counties. View Full-Text
Keywords: water quality index; Langelier Saturation Index (LSI); Larson-Skold Corrosive Index (LSCI); corrosion; solar water heater; remote island water quality index; Langelier Saturation Index (LSI); Larson-Skold Corrosive Index (LSCI); corrosion; solar water heater; remote island
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Fan, K.-C.; Chang, K.-C.; Chung, K.-M. The Impact of Water Quality on the Use of Solar Water Heaters in Remote Islands of Taiwan. Water 2016, 8, 530.

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