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Water 2015, 7(8), 4323-4342; doi:10.3390/w7084323

A New Spatiotemporal Risk Index for Heavy Metals: Application in Cyprus

1
School of Agriculture Forestry and Natural Environment, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Epanomi 57500, Greece
2
School of the Environment, University of the Aegean, Mytilini 81100, Greece
3
European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Ispra (Varese) IT-21027, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Miklas Scholz
Received: 2 June 2015 / Revised: 2 July 2015 / Accepted: 28 July 2015 / Published: 5 August 2015
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Abstract

The main aim of this research was to improve risk mapping of heavy metals by taking account of erosion effects. A new spatiotemporal index, namely the G2met index, is introduced, with integration of pre-existing methodologies (Hakanson, EPM, and G2). The G2met index is depicted as a series of risk maps for each heavy metal on a month-time step. The southern part of Cyprus Island was selected as a study area. Concentration of major heavy metals was extracted with soil sampling in a grid of 5350 sites. Rainfall, vegetation, soil, land use, topographic, and hydrologic data were collected from existing European or global databases (WorldClim, BioBar, REDES, ESDAC, CORINE, ASTER GDEM, and USGS). A large number of regional-scale risk maps (with 500-m cell size) were created: one for each heavy metal and totally per month and annually; in addition, choropleth maps in terms of statistics per river basin were produced for every metal. Generally, the G2met maps resulted in different spatial patterns in comparison to those depicted by the Hakanson index alone. View Full-Text
Keywords: PERI (Hakanson index); G2 model; EPM (Gavrilovic model); risk assessment PERI (Hakanson index); G2 model; EPM (Gavrilovic model); risk assessment
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Karydas, C.G.; Tzoraki, O.; Panagos, P. A New Spatiotemporal Risk Index for Heavy Metals: Application in Cyprus. Water 2015, 7, 4323-4342.

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