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Water 2015, 7(8), 4054-4062; doi:10.3390/w7084054

Identifying the Physical Properties of Showers That Influence User Satisfaction to Aid in Developing Water-Saving Showers

1
Products R&D Department, TOTO Ltd., 2-8-1, Honson, Chigasaki-City 2538577, Japan
2
Faculty of Textile Science &Technology, Shinshu University, 3-15-1, Tokida, Ueda-City 3868567, Japan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Miklas Scholz
Received: 20 April 2015 / Revised: 3 July 2015 / Accepted: 17 July 2015 / Published: 24 July 2015
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [295 KB, uploaded 24 July 2015]   |  

Abstract

This research was conducted with the goal of clarifying the required conditions of water-saving showerheads. In order to this, the research analyzes the mutual relationship between water usage flow, the level of satisfaction and the physical properties of spray of showerheads. The physical properties of spray were measured using physical properties test apparatus of standard or scheme for water-saving showerheads issued in several water-saving countries, and satisfaction evaluation data was acquired through bathing experiments. The evaluated showerheads were separated into three groups according to usage water flow and the level of satisfaction. The relationships between usage water flow, the level of satisfaction and physical properties were compared. The results identified that Spray Force and Spray Force-per-Hole were physical properties that influence usage water flow. Spray force-per-hole, water volume ratio in Spray Patterns within φ 100 and φ 150, Temperature Drop and Spray Angle were identified as physical properties that influenced the level of satisfaction. The level of satisfaction and usage water flow has a spurious correlation through the physical properties of Spray Force-per-Hole and Temperature Drop. It is possible to improve the level of satisfaction independent of amount of water usage through designs that set an appropriate value for water volume ratio and Spray Angle for Spray Patterns within φ 100 and φ 150. View Full-Text
Keywords: shower; satisfaction; flow rate; physical property; standard shower; satisfaction; flow rate; physical property; standard
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Okamoto, M.; Sato, M.; Shodai, Y.; Kamijo, M. Identifying the Physical Properties of Showers That Influence User Satisfaction to Aid in Developing Water-Saving Showers. Water 2015, 7, 4054-4062.

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