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Water 2015, 7(8), 4026-4040; doi:10.3390/w7084026

Spatiotemporal Correlations between Water Footprint and Agricultural Inputs: A Case Study of Maize Production in Northeast China

1
School of Geographical Sciences, Northeast Normal University, 5268 Renmin Street, Changchun 130024, China
2
Department of Natural Resources science, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881, USA
3
School of Natural Resources, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Markus Disse
Received: 21 April 2015 / Revised: 23 June 2015 / Accepted: 15 July 2015 / Published: 23 July 2015
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Abstract

To effectively manage water resources in agricultural production, it is necessary to understand the spatiotemporal variation of the water footprint (WF) and the influences of agricultural inputs. Employing spatial autocorrelation analysis and a geographically weighted regression (GWR) model, we explored the spatial variations of the WF and their relationships with agricultural inputs from 1998 to 2012 in Northeast China. The results indicated that: (1) the spatial distribution of WFs for the 36 major maize production prefectures was heterogeneous in Northeast China; (2) a cluster of high WFs was found in southeast Liaoning Province, while a cluster of low WFs was found in central Jilin Province, and (3) spatial and temporal differentiation in the correlations between the WF of maize production and agricultural inputs existed according to the GWR model. These correlations increased over time. Our results suggested that localized strategies for reducing the WF should be formulated based on specific relationships between the WF and agricultural inputs. View Full-Text
Keywords: spatiotemporal differences; agricultural inputs; geographically weighted regression; water footprint; maize; Northeast China spatiotemporal differences; agricultural inputs; geographically weighted regression; water footprint; maize; Northeast China
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Duan, P.; Qin, L.; Wang, Y.; He, H. Spatiotemporal Correlations between Water Footprint and Agricultural Inputs: A Case Study of Maize Production in Northeast China. Water 2015, 7, 4026-4040.

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