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Water 2015, 7(7), 3978-3996; doi:10.3390/w7073978

Groundwater Modeling as an Alternative Approach to Limited Data in the Northeastern Part of Mt. Hermon (Syria), to Develop a Preliminary Water Budget

1
Department of Geology, Faculty of Sciences, The University of Damascus, P.O. b 5735 Damascus, Syria
2
Université Bordeaux Montaigne, Equipe d'Accueil 4592 Géoressources & Environnement, 1 allée F. Daguin, F-33607 Pessac, France
3
Ecole Nationale Supérieure en Environnement Géologie Imagerie & Développement Institut Polytechnique National de Bordeaux, Equipe d'Accueil 4592 Géoressources & Environnement, 1 allée F. Daguin, F-33607 Pessac, France
4
Laboratoire d'Hydrogéologie, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Université de Corse Pascal Paoli, Campus Grimaldi, BP 52, F-20250 Corte, France
5
Centre Nationale de la Recherche Scientifique, Unité Mixte de Recherche 6134, Sciences Physiques de l'Envionnement, F-20250 Corte, France
6
Université de Bordeaux, Equipe d'Accueil 4592 Géoressources & Environnement, 1 allée F. Daguin, F-33607 Pessac, France
7
CNRS, UMR 5254, Technopôle Hélioparc Pau Pyrénées.2, avenue du Président Angot, F-64053 Pau Cedex 09, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Markus Disse
Received: 1 April 2015 / Revised: 24 June 2015 / Accepted: 14 July 2015 / Published: 21 July 2015
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Abstract

In developing countries such as Syria, the lack of hydrological data affects groundwater resource assessment. Groundwater models provide the means to fill the gaps in the available data in order to improve the understanding of groundwater systems. The study area can be considered as the main recharge area of the eastern side of Barada and Awaj basin in the eastern part of Mt. Hermon. The withdrawal for agricultural and domestic purposes removes a considerable amount of water. The steady-state three-dimensional (3D) groundwater model (FEFLOW which is an advanced finite element groundwater flow and transport modeling tool), was used to quantify groundwater budget components by using all available data of hydrological year 2009–2010. The results obtained may be considered as an essential tool for groundwater management options in the study area. The calibrated model demonstrates a good agreement between the observed and simulated hydraulic head. The result of the sensitivity analysis shows that the model is highly sensitive to hydraulic conductivity changes and sensitive to a lesser extent to water recharge amount. Regarding the upper aquifer horizon, the water budget under steady-state condition indicates that the lateral groundwater inflow from the Jurassic aquifer into this horizon is the most important recharge component. The major discharge component from this aquifer horizon occurs at its eastern boundary toward the outside of the model domain. The model was able to produce a satisfying estimation of the preliminary water budget of the upper aquifer horizon which indicates a positive imbalance of 4.6 Mm3·y−1. View Full-Text
Keywords: groundwater modelling; FEFLOW; water resources management; water budget; aquifer horizon; Mt. Hermon; Syria groundwater modelling; FEFLOW; water resources management; water budget; aquifer horizon; Mt. Hermon; Syria
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Asmael, N.M.; Dupuy, A.; Huneau, F.; Hamid, S.; Coustumer, P.L. Groundwater Modeling as an Alternative Approach to Limited Data in the Northeastern Part of Mt. Hermon (Syria), to Develop a Preliminary Water Budget. Water 2015, 7, 3978-3996.

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