Next Article in Journal
Flood Risk Management in Remote and Impoverished Areas—A Case Study of Onaville, Haiti
Previous Article in Journal
Modeling Residential Water Consumption in Amman: The Role of Intermittency, Storage, and Pricing for Piped and Tanker Water
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Water 2015, 7(7), 3671-3831; doi:10.3390/w7073671

Desalination of Water Using ZVI (Fe0)

DCA Consultants Ltd., Haughend, Bridge of Earn Road, Dunning, Perthshire PH2 9BX, UK
Academic Editor: Nicholas Hankins
Received: 15 February 2015 / Revised: 27 May 2015 / Accepted: 15 June 2015 / Published: 14 July 2015

Abstract

Batch treatment of water (0.2 to 240 L) using Fe0 (44,000–77,000 nm) in a diffusion environment operated (at −8 to 25 °C) using: (a) no external energy; (b) pressurized (<0.1 MPa) air; (c) pressurized (<0.1 MPa) acidic gas (CO2); (d) pressurized (<0.1 MPa) anoxic gas (N2); (e) pressurized (<0.1 MPa) anoxic, acidic, reducing gas (H2 + CO + CO2 + CH4 + N2), reduces the salinity of water. Desalination costs increase with increasing NaCl removal. The cost of reducing water salinity from: (i) 2.65 to 1.55 g·L−1 (over 1–24 h) is $0.002–$0.026 m−3; (ii) 38.6 to 0.55 g·L−1 (over 210 days) is $67.6–$187.2 m−3. Desalination is accompanied by the removal, from the water, of one or more of: nitrate, chloride, fluoride, sulphate, phosphate, As, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, S, Si, Sr, Zn. The rate of desalination is enhanced by increasing temperatures and increasing HCO3/CO32− concentrations. The rate of desalination decreases with increasing SO42− removal under acidic, or pH neutral, operating conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: desalination; zero valent metal; Eh; pH; electrical conductivity (EC); Fe0; Al0; Cu0; FeOOH desalination; zero valent metal; Eh; pH; electrical conductivity (EC); Fe0; Al0; Cu0; FeOOH
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Antia, D.D.J. Desalination of Water Using ZVI (Fe0). Water 2015, 7, 3671-3831.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top