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Water 2015, 7(7), 3515-3530; doi:10.3390/w7073515

Characterization of the Corrosive Action of Mineral Waters from Thermal Sources: A Case Study at Azores Archipelago, Portugal

1
Department of Technological Sciences and Development, University of the Azores, Ponta Delgada 9501-801, Portugal
2
Center of Research in Natural Resources (CIRN), University of the Azores, Ponta Delgada 9501-801, Portugal
3
Department of Chemistry, University of La Laguna, P.O. Box 456, La Laguna 38200, Tenerife, Spain
4
Institute of Material Science and Nanotechnology, University of La Laguna, P.O. Box 456, La Laguna 38200, Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain
5
Department of Process Engineering, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria 35017, Gran Canaria, Spain
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Maria Filomena Camões
Received: 5 March 2015 / Revised: 24 June 2015 / Accepted: 25 June 2015 / Published: 2 July 2015
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Abstract

Waters from natural sources of the São Miguel Island in the Azores archipelago have been investigated regarding their corrosive action on metallic materials. The corrosive and encrusting characteristics of the waters have been established in terms of relevant chemical parameters (namely pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), and concentrations of bicarbonate, calcium, magnesium, chloride, and sulfate ions) and their temperature by using Langelier, Ryznar, Puckorius and Larson–Skold indexes. The validity of this methodology has been tested by measuring the corrosion rates of various metals exposed to various waters using electrochemical methods. The materials of industrial interest under investigation were carbon and galvanized steel, zinc, 304 and 316L grade stainless steels, brass, and Cr–Ni alloys. The greater aggressiveness of these waters was found for the less noble materials, and they experienced high corrosion rates. View Full-Text
Keywords: mineral waters; thermal sources; corrosivity; encrusting power; analytical modelling; electrochemical testing mineral waters; thermal sources; corrosivity; encrusting power; analytical modelling; electrochemical testing
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Vasconcelos, H.C.; Fernández-Pérez, B.M.; González, S.; Souto, R.M.; Santana, J.J. Characterization of the Corrosive Action of Mineral Waters from Thermal Sources: A Case Study at Azores Archipelago, Portugal. Water 2015, 7, 3515-3530.

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