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Water 2015, 7(6), 3057-3071; doi:10.3390/w7063057

Removal of Metaldehyde from Water Using a Novel Coupled Adsorption and Electrochemical Destruction Technique

1
School of Earth Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences and Williamson Research Centre for Molecular Environmental Science, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK
2
Arvia Technology Ltd., The Innovation Centre, Sci-Tech Daresbury, Keckwick Lane, Cheshire WA4 4FS, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Say-Leong Ong
Received: 17 March 2015 / Revised: 10 June 2015 / Accepted: 15 June 2015 / Published: 19 June 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Control and Management)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [858 KB, uploaded 19 June 2015]   |  

Abstract

Metaldehyde is a selective pesticide applied to control snails and slugs and which, particularly when application rates are high and during periods of high rainfall, may find its way into water courses, some of which may be used as drinking water supplies. Existing water treatment processes have been inadequate for reducing metaldehyde residual levels (up to 8 µg/L) found in some waters to below the EU/UK statutory limit of 0.1 µg/L. Here a novel coupled adsorption and electrochemical regeneration technology is tested to determine if it is capable of effectively removing metaldehyde. We demonstrate that metaldehyde is not only adsorbed on the adsorbent used but is also destroyed during the regeneration stage, resulting in residual metaldehyde concentrations below the EU/UK regulatory limit for drinking water. No known harmful breakdown by-products were observed to be generated by the process. The effectiveness of the process seems unaffected by organic-rich peat water, indicating the potential for the treatment of drinking water much of which in the UK is derived from upland peaty catchments. Furthermore, successive spiking experiments showed that this technology has the potential to be applied as a continuous process without the generation of substantial waste products. View Full-Text
Keywords: adsorption; electrochemical regeneration; metaldehyde; pesticide adsorption; electrochemical regeneration; metaldehyde; pesticide
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Nabeerasool, M.A.; Campen, A.K.; Polya, D.A.; Brown, N.W.; van Dongen, B.E. Removal of Metaldehyde from Water Using a Novel Coupled Adsorption and Electrochemical Destruction Technique. Water 2015, 7, 3057-3071.

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