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Water 2015, 7(5), 2451-2471; doi:10.3390/w7052451

Aquifer Recharge Estimation through Atmospheric Chloride Mass Balance at Las Cañadas Caldera, Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain

1
Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Socinstrasse 57, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel, Switzerland
1
Environmental Research Division, Institute of Technology and Renewable Energies (ITER), Granadilla de Abona, Tenerife, Canary Islands 38611, Spain
2
Instituto Volcanológico de Canarias (INVOLCAN), Puerto de la Cruz, Tenerife, Canary Islands 38400, Spain
3
Civil Engineering Research and Innovation for Sustainability (CERis), Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universtiy of Lisbon, Lisbon 1049-001, Portugal
4
Instituto de Ciencias Químicas Aplicadas, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Autónoma de Chile, Santiago 7500138, Chile
5
Clippinger Laboratories, Department of Geological Sciences, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701, USA
Current address: Laboratorio Nacional de Energia e Geologia (LNEG), Alfragide, Lisbon 2610-999, Portugal.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Palacios Díaz María del Pino
Received: 27 March 2015 / Revised: 11 May 2015 / Accepted: 18 May 2015 / Published: 22 May 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Study, Development and Management of Water in Volcanic Areas)
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Abstract

The atmospheric chloride mass balance (CMB) method was used to estimate net aquifer recharge in Las Cañadas Caldera, an endorheic summit aquifer area about 2000 m a.s.l. with negligible surface runoff, which hosts the largest freshwater reserve in Tenerife Island, Canary Islands, Spain. The wet hydrological year 2005–2006 was selected to compare yearly atmospheric chloride bulk deposition and average chloride content in recharge water just above the water table, both deduced from periodical sampling. The potential contribution of chloride to groundwater from endogenous HCl gas may invalidate the CMB method. The chloride-to-bromide molar ratio was an efficient tracer used to select recharge water samples having atmospheric origin of chloride. Yearly net aquifer recharge was 631 mm year−1, i.e., 69% of yearly precipitation. This result is in agreement with potential aquifer recharge estimated through an independent lumped-parameter rainfall-runoff model operated by the Insular Water Council of Tenerife. This paper illustrates basic procedures and routines to use the CMB method for aquifer recharge in active volcanic oceanic islands having sparse-data coverage and groundwater receiving contribution of endogenous halides. View Full-Text
Keywords: aquifer recharge; chloride mass balance; Cl/Br ratio; Las Cañadas; Tenerife aquifer recharge; chloride mass balance; Cl/Br ratio; Las Cañadas; Tenerife
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Marrero-Diaz, R.; Alcalá, F.J.; Pérez, N.M.; López, D.L.; Melián, G.V.; Padrón, E.; Padilla, G.D. Aquifer Recharge Estimation through Atmospheric Chloride Mass Balance at Las Cañadas Caldera, Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain. Water 2015, 7, 2451-2471.

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