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Water 2015, 7(5), 1808-1824; doi:10.3390/w7051808

Detecting Flood Variations in Shanghai over 1949–2009 with Mann-Kendall Tests and a Newspaper-Based Database

1
Department of Geography, Shanghai Normal University, Guilin Road 100, Shanghai 200234, China
2
Department of Management, Shanghai University of Engineering Science, Longteng Road 333, Shanghai 201620, China
3
Geography Research Group, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200E, Heverlee 3001, Belgium
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Miklas Scholz
Received: 10 March 2015 / Revised: 14 April 2015 / Accepted: 17 April 2015 / Published: 27 April 2015
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Abstract

A valuable aid to assessing and managing flood risk lies in a reliable database of historical floods. In this study, a newspaper-based flood database for Shanghai (NFDS) for the period 1949–2009 was developed through a systematic scanning of newspapers. After calibration and validation of the database, Mann-Kendall tests and correlation analysis were applied to detect possible changes in flood frequencies. The analysis was carried out for three different flood types: overbank flood, agricultural waterlogging, and urban waterlogging. The compiled NFDS registered 146 floods and 92% of them occurred in the flood-prone season from June to September. The statistical analyses showed that both the annual flood and the floods in June–August increased significantly. Urban waterlogging showed a very strong increasing trend, probably because of insufficient capacity of urban drainage system and impacts of rapid urbanization. By contrast, the decrease in overbank flooding and the slight increase in agricultural waterlogging were likely because of the construction of river levees and seawalls and the upgrade of agricultural drainage systems, respectively. This study demonstrated the usefulness of local newspapers in building a historical flood database and in assessing flood characterization. View Full-Text
Keywords: newspapers; disaster database; flood; waterlogging; Mann-Kendall tests newspapers; disaster database; flood; waterlogging; Mann-Kendall tests
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Du, S.; Gu, H.; Wen, J.; Chen, K.; Van Rompaey, A. Detecting Flood Variations in Shanghai over 1949–2009 with Mann-Kendall Tests and a Newspaper-Based Database. Water 2015, 7, 1808-1824.

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