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Water 2015, 7(4), 1712-1730; doi:10.3390/w7041712

Estimating the Impact of Inflow on the Chemistry of Two Different Caldera Type Lakes Located on the Bali Island (Indonesia)

Department of Analytical Chemistry, Chemical Faculty, Gdansk University of Technology (GUT), 11/12 G. Narutowicza Str., Gdańsk 80-233, Poland
Department of Environmental Toxicology, Faculty of Health Sciences with Subfaculty of Nursing, Medical University of Gdansk, Powstania Styczniowego Str. 9b, Gdynia 81-519, Poland
Laboratory of Applied Geology, Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdansk, Piłsudskiego Str 46, Gdynia 81-378, Poland
Faculty of Earth Sciences, University of Silesia, 60 Będzińska St., Sosnowiec 41-200, Poland
Centre for Polar Studies KNOW (Leading National Research Centre), 60 Bedzinska St., Sosnowiec 41-200, Poland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Say-Leong Ong and Jiangyong Hu
Received: 9 October 2014 / Revised: 2 April 2015 / Accepted: 7 April 2015 / Published: 21 April 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Control and Management)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [6627 KB, uploaded 9 June 2015]   |  


This paper is a preliminary attempt to assess the composition of pollutants in two different caldera lakes situated in the Indonesian Archipelago: Batur and Bratan. Both lakes are characterized by largely different physico-chemical regimes; Batur Lake is located in an area that is currently volcanically active, unlike Bratan Lake. The latter is much smaller and shallower than Batur Lake. The concentration of pollutants in the Indonesian equatorial lakes is largely unknown, and the impact of both biological and geothermal processes on their distribution requires attention. This study shows that the concentrations of cations (Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+), anions (SO42−, F, Cl, Br) and trace elements (Li, B, Al, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cd, Sn, Cs, Ba, Pb, U, Be, Ag, Sb, Tl, Bi) differ greatly between both lakes. Most chemical parameters determined in volcanically influenced Batur Lake were tens to hundreds times higher than in Bratan Lake, and in the case of trace metals, the ratios of the two lakes’ concentrations reached several hundreds. This study also compared the composition and concentration levels of organic compounds in both lakes, such as fatty acids, halocarbons and esters. On the other hand, the content of organic chemicals in the lakes also results from biological activity by phytoplankton, zooplankton and bacteria. View Full-Text
Keywords: caldera type lake; water pollution; ions; trace elements; total organic carbon (TOC); fatty acids caldera type lake; water pollution; ions; trace elements; total organic carbon (TOC); fatty acids

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Polkowska, Ż.; Wolska, L.; Łęczyński, L.; Ruman, M.; Lehmann, S.; Kozak, K.; Matysik, M.; Absalon, D. Estimating the Impact of Inflow on the Chemistry of Two Different Caldera Type Lakes Located on the Bali Island (Indonesia). Water 2015, 7, 1712-1730.

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