Chemical Analysis of Wastewater from Unconventional Drilling Operations
AbstractTrillions of liters of wastewater from oil and gas extraction are generated annually in the US. The contribution from unconventional drilling operations (UDO), such as hydraulic fracturing, to this volume will likely continue to increase in the foreseeable future. The chemical content of wastewater from UDO varies with region, operator, and elapsed time after production begins. Detailed chemical analyses may be used to determine its content, select appropriate treatment options, and identify its source in cases of environmental contamination. In this study, one wastewater sample each from direct effluent, a disposal well, and a waste pit, all in West Texas, were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry, high performance ion chromatography, total organic carbon/total nitrogen analysis, and pH and conductivity analysis. Several compounds known to compose hydraulic fracturing fluid were detected among two of the wastewater samples including 2-butoxyethanol, alkyl amines, and cocamide diethanolamines, toluene, and o-xylene. Due both to its quantity and quality, proper management of wastewater from UDO will be essential. View Full-Text
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Thacker, J.B.; Carlton, D.D., Jr.; Hildenbrand, Z.L.; Kadjo, A.F.; Schug, K.A. Chemical Analysis of Wastewater from Unconventional Drilling Operations. Water 2015, 7, 1568-1579.
Thacker JB, Carlton DD, Jr, Hildenbrand ZL, Kadjo AF, Schug KA. Chemical Analysis of Wastewater from Unconventional Drilling Operations. Water. 2015; 7(4):1568-1579.Chicago/Turabian Style
Thacker, Jonathan B.; Carlton, Doug D., Jr.; Hildenbrand, Zacariah L.; Kadjo, Akinde F.; Schug, Kevin A. 2015. "Chemical Analysis of Wastewater from Unconventional Drilling Operations." Water 7, no. 4: 1568-1579.