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Water 2015, 7(4), 1422-1436; doi:10.3390/w7041422

Performance Evaluation for a Contamination Detection Method Using Multiple Water Quality Sensors in an Early Warning System

,
†,* and
School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Haidian District, Beijing 100084, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Say-Leong Ong and Jiangyong Hu
Received: 13 January 2015 / Revised: 2 March 2015 / Accepted: 24 March 2015 / Published: 30 March 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Control and Management)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [284 KB, uploaded 9 June 2015]   |  

Abstract

In this approach, a method utilizing data series from multivariate parameters to detect contaminant events is discussed and evaluated. Eight water quality sensors (pH, turbidity, conductivity, temperature, oxidation reduction potential, UV-254, nitrate and phosphate) are used in this study and the most commonly used herbicide, glyphosate, is selected as the test contaminant. Variations of all parameters are recorded in real time at different concentrations. The results from the experiment and analysis show that the proposed method with suitable optimization can detect a glyphosate contamination less than 5 min after the introduction of the contaminant using responses from online water quality sensors. The average true positive rate is 95.5%. The study also discusses the impact of the number of sensors on detection performance. The results show that if the number of sensors is reduced from 8 to 5, the true positive rate performance is still good. This indicates that the method is flexible and can be applied using a smaller number of sensors to reduce monitoring costs. View Full-Text
Keywords: multivariate parameters; conventional water quality sensor; contamination detection; glyphosate multivariate parameters; conventional water quality sensor; contamination detection; glyphosate
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Che, H.; Liu, S.; Smith, K. Performance Evaluation for a Contamination Detection Method Using Multiple Water Quality Sensors in an Early Warning System. Water 2015, 7, 1422-1436.

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