Next Article in Journal
Comparison of the Spatio-Temporal Variability of Annual Minimum Daily Extreme Flow Characteristics as a Function of Land Use and Dam Management Mode in Quebec, Canada
Next Article in Special Issue
Rethinking Sustainability, Scaling Up, and Enabling Environment: A Framework for Their Implementation in Drinking Water Supply
Previous Article in Journal
Evaluation of an Ultrafiltration-Based Procedure for Simultaneous Recovery of Diverse Microbes in Source Waters
Previous Article in Special Issue
Spatial Variability of Escherichia coli in Rivers of Northern Coastal Ecuador
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Water 2015, 7(3), 1217-1231; doi:10.3390/w7031217

Home Water Treatment Habits and Effectiveness in a Rural Arizona Community

1
Environmental Health Sciences, Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health, The University of Arizona, 1295 N. Martin Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85724, USA
2
Superfund Research Program, The University of Arizona, 1110 E. South Campus Dr., Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
3
Institute of Occupational Medicine, Research Avenue North, Riccarton, Edinburgh EH14 4AP, UK
4
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona, P.O. Box 210207, Tucson, AZ 85724, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Marc Henry
Received: 16 January 2015 / Revised: 17 February 2015 / Accepted: 10 March 2015 / Published: 18 March 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Treatment and Human Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [588 KB, uploaded 9 June 2015]   |  

Abstract

Drinking water quality in the United States (US) is among the safest in the world. However, many residents, often in rural areas, rely on unregulated private wells or small municipal utilities for water needs. These utilities may violate the Safe Drinking Water Act contaminant guidelines, often because they lack the required financial resources. Residents may use alternative water sources or install a home water treatment system. Despite increased home water treatment adoption, few studies have examined their use and effectiveness in the US. Our study addresses this knowledge gap by examining home water treatment in a rural Arizona community. Water samples were analyzed for metal(loid)s, and home treatment and demographic data were recorded in 31 homes. Approximately 42% of homes treated their water. Independent of source water quality, residents with higher income (Odds Ratio [OR] = 1.25; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] (1.00–1.64)) and education levels (OR = 1.49; 95%CI (1.12–2.12)) were more likely to treat their water. Some contaminant concentrations were effectively reduced with treatment, while some were not. We conclude that increased educational outreach on contaminant testing and treatment, especially to rural areas with endemic water contamination, would result in a greater public health impact. View Full-Text
Keywords: drinking water; Safe Drinking Water Act; reverse osmosis; rural health; arsenic drinking water; Safe Drinking Water Act; reverse osmosis; rural health; arsenic
Figures

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Lothrop, N.; Wilkinson, S.T.; Verhougstraete, M.; Sugeng, A.; Loh, M.M.; Klimecki, W.; Beamer, P.I. Home Water Treatment Habits and Effectiveness in a Rural Arizona Community. Water 2015, 7, 1217-1231.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top