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Water 2015, 7(12), 6892-6909;

Assessment on Hydrologic Response by Climate Change in the Chao Phraya River Basin, Thailand

School of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan 689-798, Korea
Water Institute, 1689beon-gil 125, Yuseong-Daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-730, Korea
Department of Environmental Engineering, Dong-A University, Busan 604-714, Korea
Environmental and Plant Engineering Research Institute, Korea Institute of Civil Engineering and Building Technology (KICT), 283, Goyangdae-Ro Ilsanseo-Gu, Goyang-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 10223, Korea
Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712, Korea
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Yingkui Li
Received: 12 October 2015 / Revised: 25 November 2015 / Accepted: 26 November 2015 / Published: 4 December 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resource Variability and Climate Change)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2919 KB, uploaded 4 December 2015]   |  


The Chao Phraya River in Thailand has been greatly affected by climate change and the occurrence of extreme flood events, hindering its economic development. This study assessed the hydrological responses of the Chao Phraya River basin under several climate sensitivity and greenhouse gas emission scenarios. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was applied to simulate the streamflow using meteorological and observed data over a nine-year period from 2003 to 2011. The SWAT model produced an acceptable performance for calibration and validation, yielding Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) values greater than 0.5. Precipitation scenarios yielded streamflow variations that corresponded to the change of rainfall intensity and amount of rainfall, while scenarios with increased air temperatures predicted future water shortages. High CO2 concentration scenarios incorporated plant responses that led to a dramatic increase in streamflow. The greenhouse gas emission scenarios increased the streamflow variations to 6.8%, 41.9%, and 38.4% from the reference period (2003–2011). This study also provided a framework upon which the peak flow can be managed to control the nonpoint sources during wet season. We hope that the future climate scenarios presented in this study could provide predictive information for the river basin. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydrology; Chao Phraya; SWAT hydrology; Chao Phraya; SWAT

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Ligaray, M.; Kim, H.; Sthiannopkao, S.; Lee, S.; Cho, K.H.; Kim, J.H. Assessment on Hydrologic Response by Climate Change in the Chao Phraya River Basin, Thailand. Water 2015, 7, 6892-6909.

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