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Water 2014, 6(6), 1826-1839; doi:10.3390/w6061826
Article

Investigation of Groundwater Flow Variations near a Recharge Pond with Repeat Deliberate Tracer Experiments

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Received: 25 January 2014; in revised form: 30 May 2014 / Accepted: 3 June 2014 / Published: 17 June 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Tracers)
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Abstract: Determining hydraulic connections and travel times between recharge facilities and production wells has become increasingly important for permitting and operating managed aquifer recharge (MAR) sites, a water supply strategy that transfers surface water into aquifers for storage and later extraction. This knowledge is critical for examining water quality changes and assessing the potential for future contamination. Deliberate tracer experiments are the best method for determining travel times and identifying preferential flow paths between recharge sites over the time scales of weeks to a few years. This paper compares the results of two deliberate tracer experiments at Kraemer Basin, Orange County, CA, USA. Results from the first experiment, which was conducted in October 1998, showed that a region of highly transmissive sedimentary material extends down gradient from the basin for more than 3 km [1]. Mean groundwater velocities were determined to be approximately 2 km/year in this region based on the arrival time of the tracer center of mass. A second experiment was initiated in January 2008 to determine if travel times from this basin to monitoring and production wells changed during the past decade in response to new recharge conditions. Results indicate that flow near Kraemer Basin was stable, and travel times to most wells determined during both experiments agree within the experimental uncertainty.
Keywords: managed aquifer recharge (MAR); groundwater flow and management; geochemical tracers; Orange County Water District (CA, USA) managed aquifer recharge (MAR); groundwater flow and management; geochemical tracers; Orange County Water District (CA, USA)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Clark, J.F.; Morrissey, S.; Dadakis, J.; Hutchinson, A.; Herndon, R. Investigation of Groundwater Flow Variations near a Recharge Pond with Repeat Deliberate Tracer Experiments. Water 2014, 6, 1826-1839.

AMA Style

Clark JF, Morrissey S, Dadakis J, Hutchinson A, Herndon R. Investigation of Groundwater Flow Variations near a Recharge Pond with Repeat Deliberate Tracer Experiments. Water. 2014; 6(6):1826-1839.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Clark, Jordan F.; Morrissey, Sheila; Dadakis, Jason; Hutchinson, Adam; Herndon, Roy. 2014. "Investigation of Groundwater Flow Variations near a Recharge Pond with Repeat Deliberate Tracer Experiments." Water 6, no. 6: 1826-1839.


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