Water 2014, 6(5), 1453-1466; doi:10.3390/w6051453
Article

Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Conditions in Kenyan Rural Schools: Are Schools Meeting the Needs of Menstruating Girls?

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Received: 10 April 2014; in revised form: 9 May 2014 / Accepted: 16 May 2014 / Published: 22 May 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Treatment and Human Health)
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Abstract: Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) programs in African schools have received increased attention, particularly around the potential impact of poor menstrual hygiene management (MHM) on equity for girls’ education. This study was conducted prior to a menstrual feasibility study in rural Kenya, to examine current WASH in primary schools and the resources available for menstruating schoolgirls. Cross-sectional surveys were performed in 62 primary schools during unannounced visits. Of these, 60% had handwashing water, 13% had washing water in latrines for menstruating girls, and 2% had soap. Latrines were structurally sound and 16% were clean. Most schools (84%) had separate latrines for girls, but the majority (77%) had no lock. Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) supported WASH in 76% of schools. Schools receiving WASH interventions were more likely to have: cleaner latrines (Risk Ratio (RR) 1.5; 95% Confidence Intervals [CI] 1.0, 2.1), handwashing facilities (RR 1.6, CI 1.1, 2.5), handwashing water (RR 2.7; CI 1.4, 5.2), and water in girls’ latrines (RR 4.0; CI 1.4, 11.6). Schools continue to lack essential WASH facilities for menstruating girls. While external support for school WASH interventions improved MHM quality, the impact of these contributions remains insufficient. Further support is required to meet international recommendations for healthy, gender-equitable schools.
Keywords: school; education; children; water sanitation and hygiene; NGOs; Africa; Kenya; menstruation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Alexander, K.T.; Oduor, C.; Nyothach, E.; Laserson, K.F.; Amek, N.; Eleveld, A.; Mason, L.; Rheingans, R.; Beynon, C.; Mohammed, A.; Ombok, M.; Obor, D.; Odhiambo, F.; Quick, R.; Phillips-Howard, P.A. Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Conditions in Kenyan Rural Schools: Are Schools Meeting the Needs of Menstruating Girls? Water 2014, 6, 1453-1466.

AMA Style

Alexander KT, Oduor C, Nyothach E, Laserson KF, Amek N, Eleveld A, Mason L, Rheingans R, Beynon C, Mohammed A, Ombok M, Obor D, Odhiambo F, Quick R, Phillips-Howard PA. Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Conditions in Kenyan Rural Schools: Are Schools Meeting the Needs of Menstruating Girls? Water. 2014; 6(5):1453-1466.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Alexander, Kelly T.; Oduor, Clifford; Nyothach, Elizabeth; Laserson, Kayla F.; Amek, Nyaguara; Eleveld, Alie; Mason, Linda; Rheingans, Richard; Beynon, Caryl; Mohammed, Aisha; Ombok, Maurice; Obor, David; Odhiambo, Frank; Quick, Robert; Phillips-Howard, Penelope A. 2014. "Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Conditions in Kenyan Rural Schools: Are Schools Meeting the Needs of Menstruating Girls?" Water 6, no. 5: 1453-1466.


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