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Water 2014, 6(12), 3603-3630; doi:10.3390/w6123603

Removal of Pathogens by Membrane Bioreactors: A Review of the Mechanisms, Influencing Factors and Reduction in Chemical Disinfectant Dosing

1
Strategic Water Infrastructure Laboratory, School of Civil, Mining and Environmental Engineering, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia
2
Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia
3
Department of Civil Engineering, King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
4
Environmental Science Center, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 October 2014 / Revised: 16 November 2014 / Accepted: 17 November 2014 / Published: 26 November 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wastewater Treatment and Reuse)
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Abstract

The continued depletion of fresh drinking water resources throughout the world has increased the need for a variety of water treatment and recycling strategies. Conventional wastewater treatment processes rely on extensive chemical post-disinfection to comply with the stringent microbiological safety for water reuse. When well designed and operated, membrane bioreactors (MBRs) can consistently achieve efficient removals of suspended solids, protozoa and coliform bacteria. Under optimal conditions, MBR systems can also significantly remove various viruses and phages. This paper provides an in-depth overview of the mechanisms and influencing factors of pathogen removal by MBR and highlights practical issues, such as reduced chemical disinfectant dosing requirements and associated economic and environmental benefits. Special attention has been paid to the aspects, such as membrane cleaning, membrane imperfections/breach and microbial regrowth, in the distribution system on the overall pathogen removal performance of MBR. View Full-Text
Keywords: membrane bioreactor; pathogen; virus; biofilm; membrane breach; membrane cleaning; disinfectant dosage membrane bioreactor; pathogen; virus; biofilm; membrane breach; membrane cleaning; disinfectant dosage
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Hai, F.I.; Riley, T.; Shawkat, S.; Magram, S.F.; Yamamoto, K. Removal of Pathogens by Membrane Bioreactors: A Review of the Mechanisms, Influencing Factors and Reduction in Chemical Disinfectant Dosing. Water 2014, 6, 3603-3630.

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