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Water, Volume 4, Issue 3 (September 2012), Pages 510-758

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Research

Jump to: Review, Other

Open AccessArticle Emergence of the Coherent Structure of Liquid Water
Water 2012, 4(3), 510-532; doi:10.3390/w4030510
Received: 29 May 2012 / Revised: 29 June 2012 / Accepted: 2 July 2012 / Published: 9 July 2012
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (463 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We examine in some detail the interaction of water molecules with the radiative electromagnetic field and find the existence of phase transitions from the vapor phase to a condensed phase where all molecules oscillate in unison, in tune with a self-trapped electromagnetic field
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We examine in some detail the interaction of water molecules with the radiative electromagnetic field and find the existence of phase transitions from the vapor phase to a condensed phase where all molecules oscillate in unison, in tune with a self-trapped electromagnetic field within extended mesoscopic space regions (Coherence Domains). The properties of such a condensed phase are examined and found to be compatible with the phenomenological properties of liquid water. In particular, the observed value of critical density is calculated with good accuracy. Full article
Open AccessArticle Creation of Carbon Credits by Water Saving
Water 2012, 4(3), 533-544; doi:10.3390/w4030533
Received: 13 June 2012 / Revised: 27 June 2012 / Accepted: 28 June 2012 / Published: 9 July 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (628 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Until now, as a way of reducing greenhouse gas emissions from Japanese homes, the emphasis has been on reduction of energy consumption for air-conditioning and lighting. In recent years, there has been progress in CO2 emission reduction through research into the water-saving
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Until now, as a way of reducing greenhouse gas emissions from Japanese homes, the emphasis has been on reduction of energy consumption for air-conditioning and lighting. In recent years, there has been progress in CO2 emission reduction through research into the water-saving performance of bathroom fixtures such as toilets and showers. Simulations have shown that CO2 emissions associated with water consumption in Japanese homes can be reduced by 25% (1% of Japan’s total CO2 emissions) by 2020 through the adoption of the use of water-saving fixtures. In response to this finding, a program to promote the replacement of current fixtures with water-saving toilet bowls and thermally insulated bathtubs has been added to the Government of Japan’s energy-saving policy. Furthermore, CO2 emission reduction through widespread use of water-saving fixtures has been adopted by the domestic credit system promoted by the Government of Japan as a way of achieving CO2 emission-reduction targets; application of this credit system has also begun. As part of a bilateral offset credit mechanism promoted by the Government of Japan, research to evaluate the CO2 reduction potential of the adoption of water-saving fixtures has been done in the city of Dalian, in China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Water Systems)
Open AccessArticle A Proposed Model to Assess and Map Irrigation Water Well Suitability Using Geospatial Analysis
Water 2012, 4(3), 545-567; doi:10.3390/w4030545
Received: 24 April 2012 / Revised: 25 June 2012 / Accepted: 10 July 2012 / Published: 24 July 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2031 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Assessing the vulnerability of groundwater is the first step toward careful management of water resources to avoid or, at least, to minimize impacts on agriculture. The objective of this study was to propose a simple method to assess the groundwater quality and to
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Assessing the vulnerability of groundwater is the first step toward careful management of water resources to avoid or, at least, to minimize impacts on agriculture. The objective of this study was to propose a simple method to assess the groundwater quality and to map its spatial variation in terms of suitability for irrigation in the Darb El-Arbaein area, Southwestern Desert, Egypt. Thirty-six surveyed wells were used to assess and map the groundwater quality. For calculating the Water Quality Index (WQI), a total of 20 (13 chemical, two physical, and five calculated) parameters were considered e.g., EC, pH, Cl, SAR, B, Zn, iron, Mn, Pb and Cd. The results of analyses were used to propose a water quality model. The different water quality maps were produced using GIS software. The results show that three water samples fall into the moderate WQI. Most of the samples (26) fall into the unsuitable WQI category. Seven samples fall into the suitable WQI category. Groundwater samples that fall into the low salinity hazard class and high WQI can be used for irrigation of most crops and the majority of soils. The WQI for the samples ranges from 47.9 to 88.6. The WQI distribution maps delineating an area of 266.66 ha are suitable for irrigation in villages (3,4) and areas of 382.35 ha are moderately suitability for villages (1,2). Since the final map shows the spatial distribution of irrigation water quality in the area, it is now much easier for a decision maker to assess the water quality for irrigation and to locate the most suitable site for drilling wells. The present study demonstrates high efficiency for GIS to analyze complex spatial data and groundwater quality mapping. Full article
Open AccessArticle Sensitivity of Coastal Flood Risk Assessments to Digital Elevation Models
Water 2012, 4(3), 568-579; doi:10.3390/w4030568
Received: 14 June 2012 / Revised: 14 July 2012 / Accepted: 16 July 2012 / Published: 27 July 2012
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (3293 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Most coastal flood risk studies make use of a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) in addition to a projected flood water level in order to estimate the flood inundation and associated damages to property and livelihoods. The resolution and accuracy of a DEM are
[...] Read more.
Most coastal flood risk studies make use of a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) in addition to a projected flood water level in order to estimate the flood inundation and associated damages to property and livelihoods. The resolution and accuracy of a DEM are critical in a flood risk assessment, as land elevation largely determines whether a location will be flooded or will remain dry during a flood event. Especially in low lying deltaic areas, the land elevation variation is usually in the order of only a few decimeters, and an offset of various decimeters in the elevation data has a significant impact on the accuracy of the risk assessment. Publicly available DEMs are often used in studies for coastal flood risk assessments. The accuracy of these datasets is relatively low, in the order of meters, and is especially low in comparison to the level of accuracy required for a flood risk assessment in a deltaic area. For a coastal zone area in Nigeria (Lagos State) an accurate LiDAR DEM dataset was adopted as ground truth concerning terrain elevation. In the case study, the LiDAR DEM was compared to various publicly available DEMs. The coastal flood risk assessment using various publicly available DEMs was compared to a flood risk assessment using LiDAR DEMs. It can be concluded that the publicly available DEMs do not meet the accuracy requirement of coastal flood risk assessments, especially in coastal and deltaic areas. For this particular case study, the publically available DEMs highly overestimated the land elevation Z-values and thereby underestimated the coastal flood risk for the Lagos State area. The findings are of interest when selecting data sets for coastal flood risk assessments in low-lying deltaic areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flood Risk Management)
Open AccessArticle Grey Water Reuse for Agricultural Purposes in the Jordan Valley: Household Survey Results in Deir Alla
Water 2012, 4(3), 580-596; doi:10.3390/w4030580
Received: 19 June 2012 / Revised: 19 July 2012 / Accepted: 20 July 2012 / Published: 6 August 2012
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (615 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Installation of decentralized grey water treatment systems in small rural communities contributes to a more sustainable water supply. In order to gauge community attitudes about collection and use of grey water, a door-to-door survey in the farming community of Deir Alla, Jordan was
[...] Read more.
Installation of decentralized grey water treatment systems in small rural communities contributes to a more sustainable water supply. In order to gauge community attitudes about collection and use of grey water, a door-to-door survey in the farming community of Deir Alla, Jordan was conducted by Royal Scientific Society interviewers. Outcomes of a detailed survey, designed specifically for this project, offer insights on people’s views on general water and wastewater issues, as well as their motivation, practices and concerns related to using grey water treatment for a portion of their household wastewater and reuse of the treated grey water for irrigation. A total of 47 respondents from different socio-economic background, aged over 18 years, from this community in the Jordan valley took part in the survey. The level of formal education of the respondents was low, and most of households’ incomes were below the poverty line in Jordan. Most of the respondents reported that the quality of water supplied by public network is acceptable, but the quantity is insufficient to meet their demand, with supplies being delivered to the household once a week. Respondents relied on the public water network as a first-most important resource (85.1%), and 57.4% of the respondent relied on private water tankers as a second-most important resource in addition to the public network. However, 6% of the respondents relied only on private water tankers with no access to the public network. Storage tanks are common practice in all the houses in order to store enough water for at least one week. The survey responses provide evidence that rural communities are willing to accept reuse of treated grey water for irrigation. Furthermore, some of people in the studied area are willing to learn more about grey water treatment and reuse in order to operate grey water systems for irrigation purposes. Water scarcity in this rural area of Jordan is the main determinant of willingness to reuse the grey water, rather than socio-economic variables. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Potable Water Savings by Using Rainwater for Non-Potable Uses in Houses
Water 2012, 4(3), 607-628; doi:10.3390/w4030607
Received: 9 July 2012 / Revised: 14 August 2012 / Accepted: 17 August 2012 / Published: 29 August 2012
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (1530 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of this study is to assess the potential for potable water savings by using rainwater as well as the sizing of rainwater tanks in houses in some cities in the world. Daily rainfall data for thirteen cities located in different countries
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The objective of this study is to assess the potential for potable water savings by using rainwater as well as the sizing of rainwater tanks in houses in some cities in the world. Daily rainfall data for thirteen cities located in different countries were used. Different catchment areas, number of residents, potable and rainwater demands were considered in order to assess their impact on the potential for potable water savings and sizing of rainwater tanks. The analysis was performed using the Netuno computer program. The results showed that the greatest potential for potable water savings is obtained in cities where there is constant rainfall, which does not always mean high annual average rainfall. Cities with well-defined periods of drought require larger tank capacities. Overall, it was observed that all parameters (catchment area, number of residents, potable and rainwater demands, and rainfall) influence the sizing of the tank for rainwater storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Water Systems)
Open AccessArticle Upgrading of Wastewater Treatment Plants Through the Use of Unconventional Treatment Technologies: Removal of Lidocaine, Tramadol, Venlafaxine and Their Metabolites
Water 2012, 4(3), 650-669; doi:10.3390/w4030650
Received: 1 June 2012 / Revised: 15 August 2012 / Accepted: 3 September 2012 / Published: 11 September 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (439 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The occurrence and removal efficiencies of the pharmaceuticals lidocaine (LDC), tramadol (TRA) and venlafaxine (VEN), and their major active metabolites monoethylglycinexylidide (MEGX), O-desmethyltramadol (ODT) and O-desmethylvenlafaxine (ODV) were studied at four wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) equipped with activated sludge treatment technologies.
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The occurrence and removal efficiencies of the pharmaceuticals lidocaine (LDC), tramadol (TRA) and venlafaxine (VEN), and their major active metabolites monoethylglycinexylidide (MEGX), O-desmethyltramadol (ODT) and O-desmethylvenlafaxine (ODV) were studied at four wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) equipped with activated sludge treatment technologies. In parallel to activated sludge treatment, the removal efficiency of the compounds in pilot- and full-scale projects installed at the WWTPs was investigated. Within these projects two different treatment methods were tested: adsorption onto powdered/granulated activated carbon (PAC/GAC) and ozonation. The metabolite MEGX was not detected in any sample. The concentrations of the target analytes in wastewater effluents resulting from activated sludge treatment ranged from 55 to 183 (LDC), 88 to 416 (TRA), 50 to 245 (ODT), 22 to 176 (VEN) and 77 to 520 ng L−1 (ODV). In the pilot project with subsequent treatment with PAC/GAC, the mean concentrations of the analytes were between Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Wastewater Treatment and Pollution Control)
Open AccessArticle The DPSIR Framework and a Pressure-Oriented Water Quality Monitoring Approach to Ecological River Restoration
Water 2012, 4(3), 670-682; doi:10.3390/w4030670
Received: 4 July 2012 / Revised: 25 August 2012 / Accepted: 4 September 2012 / Published: 14 September 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (543 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Without monitoring anthropogenic pressures on the water environment, it is difficult to set realistic river restoration targets in relation to water quality. Therefore a more holistic approach is needed to systematically explore the links between socio-economic drivers and observed water quality-related impacts on
[...] Read more.
Without monitoring anthropogenic pressures on the water environment, it is difficult to set realistic river restoration targets in relation to water quality. Therefore a more holistic approach is needed to systematically explore the links between socio-economic drivers and observed water quality-related impacts on river ecosystems. Using the DPSIR (Drivers-Pressures-State of the Environment-Impacts-Responses) framework, this study linked ecological river restoration with the socio-economic sector, with the focus on promoting a pressure-oriented water quality monitoring system. Based on the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) and relevant literature, it was found that most water quality-related indicators employed today are state/impacts-oriented, while very few are pressure-oriented. As a response, we call for more attention to a DPR (Drivers-Pressures-Responses) framework in developing an industrial ecology-based pressure-oriented water quality monitoring system for aiding ecological river restoration planning. This approach is characterized in general by accounting for material-related flows throughout the socio-economic sector in relation to river ecosystem degradation. Then the obtained information would help decision makers take appropriate measures to alleviate various significant human-induced wastes and emissions at their sources. We believe that such a pressure-oriented monitoring system will substantially complement traditional state/impacts-oriented environmental and ecological monitoring and help develop more proactive planning and decision-making processes for specific river restoration projects and general water quality management. Full article
Open AccessArticle Comparison of Configurations for High-Recovery Inland Desalination Systems
Water 2012, 4(3), 690-706; doi:10.3390/w4030690
Received: 4 July 2012 / Revised: 11 August 2012 / Accepted: 12 August 2012 / Published: 17 September 2012
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (351 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Desalination of brackish groundwater (BW) is an effective approach to augment water supply, especially for inland regions that are far from seawater resources. Brackish water reverse osmosis (BWRO) desalination is still subject to intensive energy consumption compared to the theoretical minimum energy demand.
[...] Read more.
Desalination of brackish groundwater (BW) is an effective approach to augment water supply, especially for inland regions that are far from seawater resources. Brackish water reverse osmosis (BWRO) desalination is still subject to intensive energy consumption compared to the theoretical minimum energy demand. Here, we review some of the BWRO plants with various system arrangements. We look at how to minimize energy demands, as these contribute considerably to the cost of desalinated water. Different configurations of BWRO system have been compared from the view point of normalized specific energy consumption (SEC). Analysis is made at theoretical limits. The SEC reduction of BWRO can be achieved by (i) increasing number of stages, (ii) using an energy recovery device (ERD), or (iii) operating the BWRO in batch mode or closed circuit mode. Application of more stages not only reduces SEC but also improves water recovery. However, this improvement is less pronounced when the number of stages exceeds four. Alternatively and more favourably, the BWRO system can be operated in Closed Circuit Desalination (CCD) mode and gives a comparative SEC to that of the 3-stage system with a recovery ratio of 80%. A further reduction of about 30% in SEC can be achieved through batch-RO operation. Moreover, the costly ERDs and booster pumps are avoided with both CCD and batch-RO, thus furthering the effectiveness of lowering the costs of these innovative approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Water Desalination)
Open AccessArticle Structure and Composition of Leachfield Bacterial Communities: Role of Soil Texture, Depth and Septic Tank Effluent Inputs
Water 2012, 4(3), 707-719; doi:10.3390/w4030707
Received: 28 June 2012 / Revised: 21 August 2012 / Accepted: 7 September 2012 / Published: 17 September 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (670 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Although groundwater quality depends on microbial processes in the soil treatment area (STA) of onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS), our understanding of the development of these microbial communities is limited. We examined the bacterial communities of sand, sandy loam, and clay STAs at
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Although groundwater quality depends on microbial processes in the soil treatment area (STA) of onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS), our understanding of the development of these microbial communities is limited. We examined the bacterial communities of sand, sandy loam, and clay STAs at different depths in response to septic tank effluent (STE) addition using mesocosms. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) analysis was used to compare the bacterial community structure and composition of STE, native soil prior to STE addition (UNX) and soil exposed to STE (EXP). Principal component analysis separated communities with depth in sand but not in sandy loam or clay. Indices of richness, diversity, and evenness followed the order: sandy loam > sand > clay. Analysis of TRF peaks indicated that STE contributed least to the composition of STA bacterial communities (5%–16%), followed by UNX soil (18%–48%), with the highest proportion of the community made up of TRFs not detected previously in either UNX or STE (50%–82%) for all three soils. Soil type and depth can have a marked effect on the structure and composition of STA bacterial communities, and on the relative contribution of native soil and STE to these communities. Full article
Open AccessArticle An Experimental Investigation on Inclined Negatively Buoyant Jets
Water 2012, 4(3), 720-738; doi:10.3390/w4030720
Received: 23 July 2012 / Revised: 11 September 2012 / Accepted: 12 September 2012 / Published: 24 September 2012
PDF Full-text (508 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An experimental study was performed to investigate the behavior of inclined negatively buoyant jets. Such jets arise when brine is discharged from desalination plants. A turbulent jet with a specific salinity was discharged through a circular nozzle at an angle to the horizontal
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An experimental study was performed to investigate the behavior of inclined negatively buoyant jets. Such jets arise when brine is discharged from desalination plants. A turbulent jet with a specific salinity was discharged through a circular nozzle at an angle to the horizontal into a tank with fresh water and the spatial evolution of the jet was recorded. Four different initial jet parameters were changed, namely the nozzle diameter, the initial jet inclination, the jet density and the flow rate. Five geometric quantities describing the jet trajectory that are useful in the design of brine discharge systems were determined. Dimensional analysis demonstrated that the geometric jet quantities studied, if normalized with the jet exit diameter, could be related to the densimetric Froude number. Analysis of the collected data showed that this was the case for a Froude number less than 100, whereas for larger values of the Froude number the scatter in the data increased significantly. As has been observed in some previous investigations, the slope of the best-fit straight line through the data points was a function of the initial jet angle (θ), where the slope increased with θ for the maximum levels (Ym) studied, but had a more complex behavior for horizontal distances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Water Desalination)
Open AccessArticle Discussion on Sustainable Water Technologies for Peri-Urban Areas of Mexico City: Balancing Urbanization and Environmental Conservation
Water 2012, 4(3), 739-758; doi:10.3390/w4030739
Received: 2 July 2012 / Revised: 14 August 2012 / Accepted: 4 September 2012 / Published: 24 September 2012
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (665 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Often centralized water supply, sanitation and solid waste services struggle to keep up with the rapid expansion of urban areas. The peri-urban areas are at the forefront of this expansion and it is here where decentralized technologies are increasingly being implemented. The introduction
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Often centralized water supply, sanitation and solid waste services struggle to keep up with the rapid expansion of urban areas. The peri-urban areas are at the forefront of this expansion and it is here where decentralized technologies are increasingly being implemented. The introduction of decentralized technologies allows for the development of new opportunities that enable the recovery and reuse of resources in the form of water, nutrients and energy. This resource-oriented management of water, nutrients and energy requires a sustainable system aimed at low resource use and high recovery and reuse rates. Instead of investigating each sector separately, as has been traditionally done, this article proposes and discusses a concept that seeks to combine the in- and outflows of the different sectors, reusing water and other liberated resources where possible. This paper shows and demonstrates examples of different types of sustainable technologies that can be implemented in the peri-urban areas of Mexico City [rainwater harvesting, EcoSan and biofiltros (small constructed wetlands), and (vermi-)composting]. An innovative participatory planning method, combining scenario development with a participatory planning workshop with key stakeholders, was applied and resulted in three concept scenarios. Specific technologies were then selected for each concept scenario that the technical feasibility and applicability was assessed. Following this, the resulting resource flows (nutrients, water and energy) were determined and analyzed. The results show that decentralized technologies not only have the potential to deliver adequate water supply, sanitation and solid waste services in peri-urban areas and lessen environmental pollution, but also can recover significant amounts of resources thereby saving costs and providing valuable inputs in, for instance, the agricultural sector. Social acceptance of the technologies and institutional cooperation, however, is key for successful implementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Water Systems)

Review

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Open AccessReview Microporous Silica Based Membranes for Desalination
Water 2012, 4(3), 629-649; doi:10.3390/w4030629
Received: 4 July 2012 / Revised: 11 August 2012 / Accepted: 21 August 2012 / Published: 3 September 2012
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (1315 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This review provides a global overview of microporous silica based membranes for desalination via pervaporation with a focus on membrane synthesis and processing, transport mechanisms and current state of the art membrane performance. Most importantly, the recent development and novel concepts for improving
[...] Read more.
This review provides a global overview of microporous silica based membranes for desalination via pervaporation with a focus on membrane synthesis and processing, transport mechanisms and current state of the art membrane performance. Most importantly, the recent development and novel concepts for improving the hydro-stability and separating performance of silica membranes for desalination are critically examined. Research into silica based membranes for desalination has focussed on three primary methods for improving the hydro-stability. These include incorporating carbon templates into the microporous silica both as surfactants and hybrid organic-inorganic structures and incorporation of metal oxide nanoparticles into the silica matrix. The literature examined identified that only metal oxide silica membranes have demonstrated high salt rejections under a variety of feed concentrations, reasonable fluxes and unaltered performance over long-term operation. As this is an embryonic field of research several target areas for researchers were discussed including further improvement of the membrane materials, but also regarding the necessity of integrating waste or solar heat sources into the final process design to ensure cost competitiveness with conventional reverse osmosis processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Water Desalination)
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Other

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessTechnical Note A Note on the Collection and Cleaning of Water Temperature Data
Water 2012, 4(3), 597-606; doi:10.3390/w4030597
Received: 15 June 2012 / Revised: 13 July 2012 / Accepted: 1 August 2012 / Published: 20 August 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1438 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Inexpensive remote temperature data loggers have allowed for a dramatic increase of data describing water temperature regimes. This data is used in understanding the ecological functioning of natural riverine systems and in quantifying changes in these systems. However, an increase in the quantity
[...] Read more.
Inexpensive remote temperature data loggers have allowed for a dramatic increase of data describing water temperature regimes. This data is used in understanding the ecological functioning of natural riverine systems and in quantifying changes in these systems. However, an increase in the quantity of yearly temperature data necessitates complex data management, efficient summarization, and an effective data-cleaning regimen. This note focuses on identifying events where data loggers failed to record correct temperatures using data from the Sauk River in Northwest Washington State as an example. By augmenting automated checks with visual comparisons against air temperature, related sites, multiple years, and available flow data, dewatering events can be more accurately and efficiently identified. Full article
Open AccessShort Note Mussel Spat Ropes Assist Redfin Bully Gobiomorphus huttoni Passage through Experimental Culverts with Velocity Barriers
Water 2012, 4(3), 683-689; doi:10.3390/w4030683
Received: 20 July 2012 / Revised: 24 August 2012 / Accepted: 4 September 2012 / Published: 14 September 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2365 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The application of mussel spat rope for enabling the passage of redfin bully Gobiomorphus huttoni through culverts, which create velocity barriers, was trialled in the laboratory. No fish were able to access the un-roped control pipes whereas 52% successfully negotiated the pipes in
[...] Read more.
The application of mussel spat rope for enabling the passage of redfin bully Gobiomorphus huttoni through culverts, which create velocity barriers, was trialled in the laboratory. No fish were able to access the un-roped control pipes whereas 52% successfully negotiated the pipes in the rope treatments. The success of fish ascending treatment pipes suggests mussel spat rope may be effective for enabling the passage of this and other similar fish species through otherwise impassable culverts with velocity barriers. Full article

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