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Water 2012, 4(2), 321-344; doi:10.3390/w4020321

A Laboratory Study of the Treatability of Synthetic Stormwater Under Varying Conditions Using Electric Arc Furnace Steel Slag

Environmental Systems Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Regina, Regina, Saskatchewan S4S 0A2, Canada
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Received: 2 February 2012 / Revised: 13 March 2012 / Accepted: 21 March 2012 / Published: 27 March 2012
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Abstract

The investigation of electric arc furnace (EAF) steel slag as a viable add-on technology to existing stormwater systems for the removal of dissolved phosphorus (P) was extended to explore the effects of varying environmental and treatment system conditions. Parameters such as stormwater composition, P concentration, metal concentration, pH, temperature, slag mass and slag particle size were varied. Observations relating to the method of P removal via EAF slag were also carefully considered to explain removal mechanisms involved. Results demonstrated that, although physisorption contributed to P reduction, it was not the key P removal mechanism. Instead, precipitation was observed to be a key removal pathway as evidenced by the correlation between the loss of iron (Fe) from slag and the amount of P removed from solution. The reduced removal of P by slag in a copper-dominant stormwater solution was attributed to the formation of a stable complex formed by the interaction of copper with the slag via the ion-exchange surface model. The stability of this complex inhibits the loss of Fe from the EAF slag and, consequently, P removal by means of precipitation. In terms of the effect of changing environmental and treatment system conditions on the P removal process, stormwater composition, P concentration, metal concentration, pH, temperature, slag mass and slag particle size were found to significantly influence the effectiveness of EAF slag in removing P from a given stormwater system. It was also established that a number of combinations of these factors influence P uptake differently.
Keywords: stormwater; runoff; slag; phosphorus; metal stormwater; runoff; slag; phosphorus; metal
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Okochi, N.C.; McMartin, D.W. A Laboratory Study of the Treatability of Synthetic Stormwater Under Varying Conditions Using Electric Arc Furnace Steel Slag. Water 2012, 4, 321-344.

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