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Water 2012, 4(2), 321-344; doi:10.3390/w4020321
Article

A Laboratory Study of the Treatability of Synthetic Stormwater Under Varying Conditions Using Electric Arc Furnace Steel Slag

 and
*
Environmental Systems Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Regina, Regina, Saskatchewan S4S 0A2, Canada
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 February 2012 / Revised: 13 March 2012 / Accepted: 21 March 2012 / Published: 27 March 2012
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Abstract

The investigation of electric arc furnace (EAF) steel slag as a viable add-on technology to existing stormwater systems for the removal of dissolved phosphorus (P) was extended to explore the effects of varying environmental and treatment system conditions. Parameters such as stormwater composition, P concentration, metal concentration, pH, temperature, slag mass and slag particle size were varied. Observations relating to the method of P removal via EAF slag were also carefully considered to explain removal mechanisms involved. Results demonstrated that, although physisorption contributed to P reduction, it was not the key P removal mechanism. Instead, precipitation was observed to be a key removal pathway as evidenced by the correlation between the loss of iron (Fe) from slag and the amount of P removed from solution. The reduced removal of P by slag in a copper-dominant stormwater solution was attributed to the formation of a stable complex formed by the interaction of copper with the slag via the ion-exchange surface model. The stability of this complex inhibits the loss of Fe from the EAF slag and, consequently, P removal by means of precipitation. In terms of the effect of changing environmental and treatment system conditions on the P removal process, stormwater composition, P concentration, metal concentration, pH, temperature, slag mass and slag particle size were found to significantly influence the effectiveness of EAF slag in removing P from a given stormwater system. It was also established that a number of combinations of these factors influence P uptake differently.
Keywords: stormwater; runoff; slag; phosphorus; metal stormwater; runoff; slag; phosphorus; metal
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
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Okochi, N.C.; McMartin, D.W. A Laboratory Study of the Treatability of Synthetic Stormwater Under Varying Conditions Using Electric Arc Furnace Steel Slag. Water 2012, 4, 321-344.

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