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Water, Volume 3, Issue 2 (June 2011), Pages 445-717

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessEditorial Managing Water in a Changing World
Water 2011, 3(2), 618-628; doi:10.3390/w3020618
Received: 30 May 2011 / Accepted: 30 May 2011 / Published: 10 June 2011
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (161 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Water, being a primary element in the diet and a necessary resource for the agriculture, can be considered a basic need for humans. In addition, also industrial practices need a growing amount of water. Since human population is continuously growing at a rate
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Water, being a primary element in the diet and a necessary resource for the agriculture, can be considered a basic need for humans. In addition, also industrial practices need a growing amount of water. Since human population is continuously growing at a rate that, in the last two centuries, approximates well the exponential, water demand is increasing. However, the water resources on the Earth are finite. For this reason, even disregarding the potential threats due to the climate change, this situation appears as one of the biggest challenges of the current era. Actually, several small-scale regions already face water sustainability problems, and the scarcity of water resources is expected to spread to wider areas in the near future, if the actual trends of development and population growth do not change. The situation is exacerbated as the climate is already changing, due to the anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, and its rate is expected to increase by the end of this century. The effects of these changes will increase the natural variability of the climate, exacerbating the extreme climatic phenomena (drought and flood events) and increasing the difficulty of managing water resources, especially in the most vulnerable regions. Full article

Research

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Open AccessArticle Atmospheric Rivers, Floods and the Water Resources of California
Water 2011, 3(2), 445-478; doi:10.3390/w3020445
Received: 12 February 2011 / Revised: 3 March 2011 / Accepted: 21 March 2011 / Published: 24 March 2011
Cited by 112 | PDF Full-text (3128 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
California’s highly variable climate and growing water demands combine to pose both water-supply and flood-hazard challenges to resource managers. Recently important efforts to more fully integrate the management of floods and water resources have begun, with the aim of benefitting both sectors. California
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California’s highly variable climate and growing water demands combine to pose both water-supply and flood-hazard challenges to resource managers. Recently important efforts to more fully integrate the management of floods and water resources have begun, with the aim of benefitting both sectors. California is shown here to experience unusually large variations in annual precipitation and streamflow totals relative to the rest of the US, variations which mostly reflect the unusually small average number of wet days per year needed to accumulate most of its annual precipitation totals (ranging from 5 to 15 days in California). Thus whether just a few large storms arrive or fail to arrive in California can be the difference between a banner year and a drought. Furthermore California receives some of the largest 3-day storm totals in the country, rivaling in this regard the hurricane belt of the southeastern US. California’s largest storms are generally fueled by landfalling atmospheric rivers (ARs). The fractions of precipitation and streamflow totals at stations across the US that are associated with ARs are documented here and, in California, contribute 20–50% of the state’s precipitation and streamflow. Prospects for long-lead forecasts of these fractions are presented. From a meteorological perspective, California’s water resources and floods are shown to derive from the same storms to an extent that makes integrated flood and water resources management all the more important. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Managing Water Resources and Development in a Changing Climate)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Climate Change and Classic Maya Water Management
Water 2011, 3(2), 479-494; doi:10.3390/w3020479
Received: 8 February 2011 / Revised: 27 February 2011 / Accepted: 23 March 2011 / Published: 1 April 2011
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (1122 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The critical importance of water is undeniable. It is particularly vital in semitropical regions with noticeable wet and dry seasons, such as the southern Maya lowlands. Not enough rain results in decreasing water supply and quality, failed crops, and famine. Too much water
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The critical importance of water is undeniable. It is particularly vital in semitropical regions with noticeable wet and dry seasons, such as the southern Maya lowlands. Not enough rain results in decreasing water supply and quality, failed crops, and famine. Too much water results in flooding, destruction, poor water quality, and famine. We show not only how Classic Maya (ca. A.D. 250–950) society dealt with the annual seasonal extremes, but also how kings and farmers responded differently in the face of a series of droughts in the Terminal Classic period (ca. A.D. 800–950). Maya farmers are still around today; kings, however, disappeared over 1,000 years ago. There is a lesson here on how people and water managers responded to long-term climate change, something our own society faces at present. The basis for royal power rested in what kings provided their subjects materially—that is, water during annual drought via massive artificial reservoirs, and spiritually—that is, public ceremonies, games, festivals, feasts, and other integrative activities. In the face of rulers losing their powers due to drought, people left. Without their labor, support and services, the foundation of royal power crumbled; it was too inflexible and little suited to adapting to change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Managing Water Resources and Development in a Changing Climate)
Open AccessArticle Trade Liberalization and Climate Change: A Computable General Equilibrium Analysis of the Impacts on Global Agriculture
Water 2011, 3(2), 526-550; doi:10.3390/w3020526
Received: 30 March 2011 / Revised: 18 April 2011 / Accepted: 20 April 2011 / Published: 6 May 2011
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (537 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Based on predicted changes in the magnitude and distribution of global precipitation, temperature and river flow under the A1B and A2 scenarios of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (IPCC SRES), this study assesses the potential impacts of
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Based on predicted changes in the magnitude and distribution of global precipitation, temperature and river flow under the A1B and A2 scenarios of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (IPCC SRES), this study assesses the potential impacts of climate change and CO2 fertilization on global agriculture, and its interactions with trade liberalization, as proposed for the Doha Development Round. The analysis uses the new version of the GTAP-W model, which distinguishes between rainfed and irrigated agriculture and implements water as an explicit factor of production for irrigated agriculture. Significant reductions in agricultural tariffs lead to modest changes in regional water use. Patterns are non-linear. On the regional level, water use may go up for partial liberalization, and down for more complete liberalization. This is because different crops respond differently to tariff reductions, and because trade and competition matter too. Moreover, trade liberalization tends to reduce water use in water scarce regions, and increase water use in water abundant regions, even though water markets do not exist in most countries. Considering impacts of climate change, the results show that global food production, welfare and GDP fall over time while food prices increase. Larger changes are observed under the SRES A2 scenario for the medium term (2020) and under the SRES A1B scenario for the long term (2050). Combining scenarios of future climate change with trade liberalization, countries are affected differently. However, the overall effect on welfare does not change much. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Managing Water Resources and Development in a Changing Climate)
Open AccessCommunication Historical Legacies, Information and Contemporary Water Science and Management
Water 2011, 3(2), 566-575; doi:10.3390/w3020566
Received: 20 March 2011 / Revised: 30 March 2011 / Accepted: 27 April 2011 / Published: 12 May 2011
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (159 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hydrologic science has largely built its understanding of the hydrologic cycle using contemporary data sources (i.e., last 100 years). However, as we try to meet water demand over the next 100 years at scales from local to global, we need to
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Hydrologic science has largely built its understanding of the hydrologic cycle using contemporary data sources (i.e., last 100 years). However, as we try to meet water demand over the next 100 years at scales from local to global, we need to expand our scope and embrace other data that address human activities and the alteration of hydrologic systems. For example, the accumulation of human impacts on water systems requires exploration of incompletely documented eras. When examining these historical periods, basic questions relevant to modern systems arise: (1) How is better information incorporated into water management strategies? (2) Does any point in the past (e.g., colonial/pre-European conditions in North America) provide a suitable restoration target? and (3) How can understanding legacies improve our ability to plan for future conditions? Beginning to answer these questions indicates the vital need to incorporate disparate data and less accepted methods to meet looming water management challenges. Full article
Open AccessArticle Present Characteristics of Northwestern Patagonia (Argentina)
Water 2011, 3(2), 576-589; doi:10.3390/w3020576
Received: 13 April 2011 / Accepted: 13 May 2011 / Published: 13 May 2011
PDF Full-text (1190 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Changes experienced in temperature, precipitation, demography and land coverage are the main themes studied in northwestern Patagonia, Argentina, which includes part of Neuquén, Río Negro and Chubut provinces. The precipitation shows important interannual variability and decreases during the warm semester. The mean minimum
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Changes experienced in temperature, precipitation, demography and land coverage are the main themes studied in northwestern Patagonia, Argentina, which includes part of Neuquén, Río Negro and Chubut provinces. The precipitation shows important interannual variability and decreases during the warm semester. The mean minimum temperature in January in Neuquén city increased with statistical significance. Forests and steppe are the more important ecosystems of the area and the native forests of Nothofagus sp. are located mainly in protected areas like National or Provincial Parks. Twenty-eight percent of the Andean—patagonic forests are in the Río Negro province, while Neuquén province has 9% and Chubut province has 26%. The censuses of 1991 and 2001 showed that Los Lagos, Lacar, Picún Leufú and Cushamen are the counties with increasing population. Full article
Open AccessArticle Tailored Watershed Assessment and Integrated Management (TWAIM): A Systems Thinking Approach
Water 2011, 3(2), 590-603; doi:10.3390/w3020590
Received: 1 March 2011 / Revised: 22 May 2011 / Accepted: 24 May 2011 / Published: 3 June 2011
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (157 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Control of non-point source (NPS) water pollution remains elusive in the United States (US). Many US water-bodies which have been primarily impacted by NPS pollution have not achieved water quality goals set by Clean Water Act. Technological advances have been made since 1972,
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Control of non-point source (NPS) water pollution remains elusive in the United States (US). Many US water-bodies which have been primarily impacted by NPS pollution have not achieved water quality goals set by Clean Water Act. Technological advances have been made since 1972, yet many water resources fail to meet water quality standards. Common Pool Resources Theory is considered to understand the human dimension of NPS pollution by exploring anthropogenic activities superimposed upon dynamic ecosystems. In the final analysis, priority management zones (PMZs) for best management practice (BMP) implementation must have buy-in from land managers. TWAIM is an iterative systems thinking approach to planning, collecting landscape and land use information and communicating systems understanding to stakeholders. Hydrologic pathways that link the physical, chemical and biological characteristics influence processes occurring in a watershed which drive stream health and ecological function. With better systems understanding and application by technical specialists, there is potential for improved stakeholder interaction and dialogue which could then enable better land use decisions. Issues of pollutant origin, transport, storage and hydraulic residence must be defined and communicated effectively to land managers within a watershed context to observe trends in water quality change. The TWAIM concept provides a logical framework for locally-led assessment and a means to communicate ecohydrologic systems understanding over time to the key land managers such that PMZs can be defined for BMP implementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Point Source Pollution Control and Management)
Open AccessArticle Evaluating Hydrologic Response of an Agricultural Watershed for Watershed Analysis
Water 2011, 3(2), 604-617; doi:10.3390/w3020604
Received: 6 April 2011 / Revised: 1 May 2011 / Accepted: 23 May 2011 / Published: 3 June 2011
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (265 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper describes the hydrological assessment of an agricultural watershed in the Midwestern United States through the use of a watershed scale hydrologic model. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was applied to the Maquoketa River watershed, located in northeast Iowa,
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This paper describes the hydrological assessment of an agricultural watershed in the Midwestern United States through the use of a watershed scale hydrologic model. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was applied to the Maquoketa River watershed, located in northeast Iowa, draining an agriculture intensive area of about 5,000 km2. The inputs to the model were obtained from the Environmental Protection Agency’s geographic information/database system called Better Assessment Science Integrating Point and Nonpoint Sources (BASINS). Meteorological input, including precipitation and temperature from six weather stations located in and around the watershed, and measured streamflow data at the watershed outlet, were used in the simulation. A sensitivity analysis was performed using an influence coefficient method to evaluate surface runoff and baseflow variations in response to changes in model input hydrologic parameters. The curve number, evaporation compensation factor, and soil available water capacity were found to be the most sensitive parameters among eight selected parameters. Model calibration, facilitated by the sensitivity analysis, was performed for the period 1988 through 1993, and validation was performed for 1982 through 1987. The model was found to explain at least 86% and 69% of the variability in the measured streamflow data for calibration and validation periods, respectively. This initial hydrologic assessment will facilitate future modeling applications using SWAT to the Maquoketa River watershed for various watershed analyses, including watershed assessment for water quality management, such as total maximum daily loads, impacts of land use and climate change, and impacts of alternate management practices. Full article
Open AccessArticle Chemical Quality Status of Rivers for the Water Framework Directive: A Case Study of Toxic Metals in North West England
Water 2011, 3(2), 649-666; doi:10.3390/w3020650
Received: 17 April 2011 / Revised: 27 May 2011 / Accepted: 28 May 2011 / Published: 14 June 2011
PDF Full-text (666 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper provides data from two years of monitoring of the chemical quality of rivers and streams in North West England from the clean headwaters to polluted rivers just above the tidal reach and covers 26 sites including the Ribble, Wyre and the
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This paper provides data from two years of monitoring of the chemical quality of rivers and streams in North West England from the clean headwaters to polluted rivers just above the tidal reach and covers 26 sites including the Ribble, Wyre and the tributary rivers of the Calder and Douglas. Across the basins that include areas of rural, urban and industrial typologies, data is presented for three of the priority substances in the Water Framework Directive i.e., nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb). Average concentrations are low and well below the Environmental Quality Standards values for all three of these substances. Cadmium and Pb appear in approximately equal proportions in the dissolved (0.45 µm) whilst Ni occurs predominantly in the dissolved form (92%). Regional inputs of these metals arise mostly from diffuse sources as the storm-flow concentrations are generally greater than at base-flow condition. Greater concentrations of Ni are transported at the headwaters and smaller tributary sites under storm flow condition than for the main stream of the Ribble. For Ni, amounts increase as the river proceeds from its headwaters down towards the Ribble and Wyre estuaries, whilst Cd and Pb show consistent values throughout the catchment. There is annual cycling of dissolved concentrations of Cd, Pb and Ni for the clean headwater streams that gives maxima during the latter half of the year when the river flow is greater. For the impacted sites the pattern is less distinct or absent. Our estimates suggest that the Ribble estuary receives 550 t y−1 of dissolved Ni, 16 t y−1 of dissolved Cd and 240 t y−1 of dissolved Pb. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inorganic Pollution of Water Environment)
Open AccessArticle Managing Water Supply through Joint Regional Municipal Authorities in Finland: Two Comparative Cases
Water 2011, 3(2), 667-681; doi:10.3390/w3020667
Received: 16 May 2011 / Revised: 23 May 2011 / Accepted: 2 June 2011 / Published: 15 June 2011
PDF Full-text (257 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this paper is to analyze two Finnish Joint Regional Authorities for Water Supply—namely the Raisio-Naantali Joint Municipal Authority for Water Supply (established in 1957) and the Tuusula Region Joint Municipal Authority for Water Supply (established in 1967)—for assessing the development
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The aim of this paper is to analyze two Finnish Joint Regional Authorities for Water Supply—namely the Raisio-Naantali Joint Municipal Authority for Water Supply (established in 1957) and the Tuusula Region Joint Municipal Authority for Water Supply (established in 1967)—for assessing the development of supra-municipal water governance. The above two cases make it possible to analyze and assess water policies in settings where the owners are groups of municipalities. The analysis is based on two separately conducted case studies. The study data consist of several types of materials: Annual reports, local government documents, etc. The conducted interviews were semi-structured with some themes defined beforehand. The studies describe two authorities in the context of historical development and as a part of local development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Policy)
Open AccessArticle Generic Modelling of Faecal Indicator Organism Concentrations in the UK
Water 2011, 3(2), 682-701; doi:10.3390/w3020682
Received: 4 May 2011 / Revised: 9 June 2011 / Accepted: 14 June 2011 / Published: 20 June 2011
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (447 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To meet European Water Framework Directive requirements, data are needed on faecal indicator organism (FIO) concentrations in rivers to enable the more heavily polluted to be targeted for remedial action. Due to the paucity of FIO data for the UK, especially under high-flow
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To meet European Water Framework Directive requirements, data are needed on faecal indicator organism (FIO) concentrations in rivers to enable the more heavily polluted to be targeted for remedial action. Due to the paucity of FIO data for the UK, especially under high-flow hydrograph event conditions, there is an urgent need by the policy community for generic models that can accurately predict FIO concentrations, thus informing integrated catchment management programmes. This paper reports the development of regression models to predict base- and high-flow faecal coliform (FC) and enterococci (EN) concentrations for 153 monitoring points across 14 UK catchments, using land cover, population (human and livestock density) and other variables that may affect FIO source strength, transport and die-off. Statistically significant models were developed for both FC and EN, with greater explained variance achieved in the high-flow models. Both land cover and, in particular, population variables are significant predictors of FIO concentrations, with r2 maxima for EN of 0.571 and 0.624, respectively. It is argued that the resulting models can be applied, with confidence, to other UK catchments, both to predict FIO concentrations in unmonitored watercourses and evaluate the likely impact of different land use/stocking level and human population change scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Policy)
Open AccessArticle Sustainable and Innovative Solutions for Sewage Sludge Management
Water 2011, 3(2), 702-717; doi:10.3390/w3020702
Received: 16 March 2011 / Revised: 16 May 2011 / Accepted: 10 June 2011 / Published: 22 June 2011
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (466 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sludge produced by municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) amounts to only a few percent by volume of the processed wastewater, but its handling accounts for up to 50% of total operating costs. Moreover, the need to achieve a sustainable sludge management strategy has
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Sludge produced by municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) amounts to only a few percent by volume of the processed wastewater, but its handling accounts for up to 50% of total operating costs. Moreover, the need to achieve a sustainable sludge management strategy has become of great concern. It follows that as conventional and more traditional options, such as land spreading for agricultural purposes, are progressively restricted, and often legally banned, the development of innovative systems to maximize the recovery of useful materials and/or energy is required. A change toward more sustainable procedures can be promoted through an integrated approach, including the assessment of management routes capable of maximizing the recycle/recovery benefits, through low energy impact systems, and the development of operational systems appropriate to local circumstances. Based on the above considerations, an integrated system is proposed in this paper. It includes Anaerobic digestion, Dewatering/Drying, and Pyrolysis/Gasification processes which are efficiently coupled for the recovery of products for material reuse and/or energy purposes. Such an integrated system should also allow the recovery of one or more materials, depending on the combination of processes which best fit specific local situations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Science and Technology of Wastewater and Sludge Treatment)

Review

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Open AccessReview Electrocoagulation in Wastewater Treatment
Water 2011, 3(2), 495-525; doi:10.3390/w3020495
Received: 15 February 2011 / Revised: 18 March 2011 / Accepted: 28 March 2011 / Published: 6 April 2011
Cited by 26 | PDF Full-text (405 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A review of the literature published in from 2008 to 2010 on topics related to electrochemical treatment within wastewater was presented. The review included several sections such as optimization, modeling, various wastewater treatment techniques, analytical and instrumentation, and comparison with other treatment methods.
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A review of the literature published in from 2008 to 2010 on topics related to electrochemical treatment within wastewater was presented. The review included several sections such as optimization, modeling, various wastewater treatment techniques, analytical and instrumentation, and comparison with other treatment methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Science and Technology of Wastewater and Sludge Treatment)
Open AccessReview Liquid Radioactive Wastes Treatment: A Review
Water 2011, 3(2), 551-565; doi:10.3390/w3020551
Received: 13 April 2011 / Revised: 4 May 2011 / Accepted: 5 May 2011 / Published: 12 May 2011
Cited by 43 | PDF Full-text (171 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Radioactive wastes are generated during nuclear fuel cycle operation, production and application of radioisotope in medicine, industry, research, and agriculture, and as a byproduct of natural resource exploitation, which includes mining and processing of ores, combustion of fossil fuels, or production of natural
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Radioactive wastes are generated during nuclear fuel cycle operation, production and application of radioisotope in medicine, industry, research, and agriculture, and as a byproduct of natural resource exploitation, which includes mining and processing of ores, combustion of fossil fuels, or production of natural gas and oil. To ensure the protection of human health and the environment from the hazard of these wastes, a planned integrated radioactive waste management practice should be applied. This work is directed to review recent published researches that are concerned with testing and application of different treatment options as a part of the integrated radioactive waste management practice. The main aim from this work is to highlight the scientific community interest in important problems that affect different treatment processes. This review is divided into the following sections: advances in conventional treatment of aqueous radioactive wastes, advances in conventional treatment of organic liquid wastes, and emerged technological options. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Science and Technology of Wastewater and Sludge Treatment)
Open AccessReview Chemicals and Allied Products Waste Treatment
Water 2011, 3(2), 629-648; doi:10.3390/w3020629
Received: 1 May 2011 / Revised: 26 May 2011 / Accepted: 26 May 2011 / Published: 14 June 2011
PDF Full-text (303 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract A review of the literature published from 2008 to 2010 on topics related to chemicals and allied products is presented. The review considered several sections such as waste management, physicochemical treatment, aerobic treatment, anaerobic treatment, air emissions, soils and groundwater, and reuse. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Science and Technology of Wastewater and Sludge Treatment)

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