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Water 2018, 10(7), 891; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10070891

Coastal Erosion Management at Callao (Peru) in the 17th and 18th Centuries: The First Groin Field in South America?

1
Facultad de Ciencias de la Vida, Universidad Estatal Amazonica, Sucumbos EC210150, Ecuador
2
Research Center, Green Amazon, Nueva Loja EC110150, Ecuador
3
Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università di Firenze, 50121 Firenze, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 June 2018 / Revised: 26 June 2018 / Accepted: 27 June 2018 / Published: 4 July 2018
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Abstract

Analysis of written documents, projects and historical cartography of the 17th and 18th centuries allows reconstruction of the shore protection works performed at Callao (Peru) to defend the settlements and its boundary wall from storm waves and tsunamis. Groins appeared for the first time in early 18th century maps, together with gently sloping revetments in an unrealized project of the same period. Comparisons between Callao projects and those performed in Europe in the same centuries show a uniformity in design and construction materials that overpasses the environmental differences of the sites. Successes and failures followed each other and, although an understanding of coastal dynamics and the positive and negative effects of the various works were known, it was not possible to guarantee the stability of the walls and consequently the safety of the city from sea attack. A strategic retreat was even considered. View Full-Text
Keywords: historical cartography; shore protection structures history; groins; gently sloping revetment; earthquake; tsunami; strategic retreat historical cartography; shore protection structures history; groins; gently sloping revetment; earthquake; tsunami; strategic retreat
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Mestanza, C.; Piccardi, M.; Pranzini, E. Coastal Erosion Management at Callao (Peru) in the 17th and 18th Centuries: The First Groin Field in South America? Water 2018, 10, 891.

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