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Water 2018, 10(5), 584; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10050584

Evaluation of Different Clinoptilolite Zeolites as Adsorbent for Ammonium Removal from Highly Concentrated Synthetic Wastewater

1
Institute for Sanitary Engineering, Water Quality and Solid Waste Management (ISWA), University of Stuttgart, Bandtaele 2, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany
2
Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Kaiserslautern, Paul-Ehrlich-Str. 14, 67663 Kaiserslautern, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 April 2018 / Revised: 17 April 2018 / Accepted: 25 April 2018 / Published: 30 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Water and Wastewater Treatment)
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Abstract

The supply of food to the growing world population requires an increasing amount of nitrogen fertilizers, which can be achieved both by the energy-intensive Haber–Bosch process and by recovering ammonium from wastewater. Within the scope of this work, it is investigated to what extent different clinoptilolites (CLIs) can be used as ion-exchangers for the removal of ammonium from highly concentrated solutions. To this end, finely ground CLIs with different grain sizes (EcoZeo 20 and CCP 20: 0–20 µm, Micro 200: 0–200 µm) were tested for their sorption properties by varying the parameters of the sorption solution (c0 = 1000 mg NH4-N/L) such as pH, temperature, or contact time. All three CLIs tested were effective at adsorbing ammonium. In a pH range from 2 to 8, all CLIs were able to eliminate ammonium equally well. Furthermore, a contact time of 60 min was sufficient to achieve 84–88% of the maximum load. At a temperature of 34 °C, the highest loading was achieved (investigated range: 10–34 °C), indicating that the adsorption process of all CLIs was exergonic and endothermic. Especially for wastewater streams with high ammonium concentrations such as sludge water from wastewater treatment plants, CLI proved to be suitable to adsorb ammonium. View Full-Text
Keywords: ammonia; ammonium recovery; Freundlich; intraparticle diffusion; isoelectric state; Langmuir; pseudo-second-order; Temkin; zeolite ammonia; ammonium recovery; Freundlich; intraparticle diffusion; isoelectric state; Langmuir; pseudo-second-order; Temkin; zeolite
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Wasielewski, S.; Rott, E.; Minke, R.; Steinmetz, H. Evaluation of Different Clinoptilolite Zeolites as Adsorbent for Ammonium Removal from Highly Concentrated Synthetic Wastewater. Water 2018, 10, 584.

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