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Water 2018, 10(4), 426; doi:10.3390/w10040426

Analysis of Hydrochemical Characteristics and Three-Dimensional Fluorescence Spectra in the Semi-Arid Ebinur Lake Watershed, Xinjiang, China

1,2
,
1,2,* and 1,2
1
Key Laboratory of Xinjiang Wisdom City and Environment Modelling, College of Resources and Environment Science, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046, China
2
Key Laboratory of Oasis Ecology, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 February 2018 / Revised: 22 March 2018 / Accepted: 29 March 2018 / Published: 4 April 2018
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Abstract

Hydrochemical characteristics and three-dimensional fluorescence spectra for Lake Ebinur and its major inflow tributaries have been analyzed. The results indicate that Jing and Bortala River ions differ very little. Anions are composed of HCO3 > SO42− > Cl, while cations have the following composition: Ca2+ > Mg2+ > Na+ > K+. The Jing and Bortala Rivers include mainly SO42− and HCO3 anions; these cations are primarily Ca2+. Hydrochemical components of the Jing and Bortala Rivers are of the HCO3-Ca2+ type. Ion compositions of the Jing and Bortala Rivers are derived primarily from the weathering of rocks. In addition, a parallel factor method (PARAFAC) analysis of three-dimensional fluorescence spectra (EEM) of the Jing and Bortala Rivers shows that all the sampled water bodies contain C1 (260/420 nm) humic organic matter, C2 (240, 240/490 nm), C3 (220/280, 300/450 nm) protein-like C4 (260, 270/530 nm), and humic substances. To further understand characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) components, we base our research on regional standards related to water quality and fluorescence. A fluorescence regional integration (FRI) analysis of the Jing and Bortala Rivers shows that protein organic matter levels are the highest, whereas fulvic acid levels are the lowest. Of the correlation coefficients of hydrochemical factors and fluorescence indices, the biological index (BIX), TDS, HCO3, and K+ are stronger in major inflow tributaries of Ebinur Lake with correlation coefficients of 0.577, 0.708, and 0.764, respectively, at the p < 0.01 significance level; correlations between the humification index (HIX) and HCO3 concentrations amount to 0.568 at the p < 0.05 significance level. Hydrochemical factors and fluorescence indices show the presence of three fitting relationships. While the HIX and HCO3 fitting effect is strongest with a correlation coefficient of 0.789, the second strongest is that of BIX and K+ with a correlation coefficient of 0.814. The results of this work offer scientific support for water quality monitoring and restoration in arid regions of Central Asia. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydrochemical factor; fluorescence index; fluorescence spectra hydrochemical factor; fluorescence index; fluorescence spectra
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Zhang, H.; Zhang, F.; Song, J. Analysis of Hydrochemical Characteristics and Three-Dimensional Fluorescence Spectra in the Semi-Arid Ebinur Lake Watershed, Xinjiang, China. Water 2018, 10, 426.

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